Sunday, November 29, 2015

On the Need for Selfishness

Humanity uses good and evil as notions of what is right and wrong behavior, but compassion and selfishness are much more useful notions for actually predicting how people act. While compassion is what tends to bond people together into cooperative families, clans, villages, cities, and countries, selfishness is more often what conflicts people with each other or groups of people with other groups of people. With compassion, people cooperatively share the wealth they have acquired and with selfishness, people put their own survival first and acquire wealth more for themselves.

There is a strong association between the notion of evil and the emotion of selfishness, but that is not a useful association. People must have some selfishness in order to survive and likewise, people must also have some compassion in order to bond with other people. If a people are too selfish, they accumulate wealth and may actually take wealth from other people, including the lives of other people. But people must have some selfishness and so the absolute notions of good and evil and the emotions of love and hate are not that useful. Instead, it is the emotions of compassion and selfishness that better predict how people feel about each other.

There is a long history of the emotions of love and hate and many religions tout love as the most important emotion for bonding people together. Hate as the complement to love engenders the conflicts that people have with each other and there is an ultimate evil in hate. Since hate is always undesirable, the emotions of love and hate are not as useful as compassion and selfishness for predicting how people act.

Religions usually promote various supernatural agents for good compassion and other agents for evil selfishness, but really compassion and selfishness are part of the dual representations for how the universe works; relational and Cartesian. A relational person is compassionate and relates better with and cares more about others and is therefore a person who is on a common journey with many others. A Cartesian person is more selfish and cares more about themselves than other people and selfish people are therefore more separate and alone on their own objective Cartesian journeys. Just as a relational person subjectively bonds with many other people in a common journey of compassion, Cartesian people are largely on their own objective selfish journeys and only weakly interact with other people.

The complements of each emotion of five emotion pairs represent the basic duality of matter and action. While compassion represents the matter and bonding of feeling, selfishness represents the action and conflict of that feeling. Compassion is then the inhibition of selfish action and compassion bonds people together while selfishness is the excitation of selfish action where people conflict.

In our brains, excitations and inhibitions of neural action potentials represent how we feel and form the EEG spectra of brain waves as the figure below shows.  In our spectral reality,the basic phenomena of consciousness are particles of neural action called aware matter that bond into larger aware matter objects called thoughts. Thoughts resonate as the EEG spectra of the brain and are the matter or feelings that bond two people and that bonding likewise results in further matter spectra that show those relationships.

Science does not yet understand how neural action results in the consciousness of EEG spectra, but sleep is a very important part of neural action. In fact, there are two primitive neural matter packets that appear in the EEG during sleep are called K complexes and sleep spindles. Both K complexes and sleep spindles are made of delta mode packets. The EEG K complex seems to be the simple delta dimer while a sleep spindle seems to be a delta dimer with an alpha mode carrier and are the basic primitive neural packets that appear during sleep. These primitive neural packets are what keep our mind asleep and yet they also represent the basic neural aware matter that binds or conflicts us with others as well with compassion and selfishness.

Compassion and selfishness are therefore the two most important emotions for bonding and conflict and people actually have both compassionate and selfish feelings in all journeys in life. Compassion and selfishness are much more useful than love and hate for describing the complexity of relationships. Bonding relationships come about from pleasurable neural excitations and result in delta dimer bonds that inhibit anxiety. Conflicts among people inhibit pleasure and excite anxiety, which is the alpha carrier mode.

People always need to act somewhat selfishly in order to survive and so there are no journeys without selfish action just as there are no journeys with only compassion. There are no people in life that are only Cartesian or only relational, there are likewise neither completely selfish nor completely compassionate people…all people must act both with compassion and selfishness in order to survive. This is why love and hate are less useful complements of bonding emotions.

A Cartesian person journeys on a path that is more isolated from other people and so a Cartesian generally represents selfish action that cares more about their own needs than the needs of others. In contrast, a relational person journeys as a superposition of many possible futures that are more bonded with others by compassion. A relational has more compassion for other people and a relational inhibits selfish actions. A relational person has more compassion for others that inhibits selfish action for their own needs and therefore relationals are more open about the many possible futures with other people.

By extension of compassion and selfishness to the governments of clans, villages, and states, the notions of compassion and selfishness represent the cooperation and conflicts that bond and conflict people into a community with many largely anonymous people living together in large cities and countries. The constitution of a balanced government incorporates the notions of a balance of compassion and selfishness to assure survival just as people selfishly assure their own survivals.

Religions have sometimes very strict guidelines for compassion and selfishness and such guidelines provide religious people with purpose and meaning. Governments provide less rigid guidelines for compassion and selfishness as compared with religion and governments therefore tolerate a much wider range of behavior and therefore purpose and meaning. A government ideology balances compassion and selfishness and governments can show compassion as well as selfishness just as people do.

Governments balance compassion, sharing, and cooperation with selfish actions and that balance allows competition to promote commerce and innovation. The markets of commerce permit people to act selfishly and trade for goods and services that not only meet the selfish needs of survival, but also provide goods and services for others as well in a form of compassion. The government builds roads, transportation, buildings, parks, and social welfare represent the compassion of public resources shared for all.

Saturday, November 21, 2015

What Is Nothing Like?

When we as young children begin our journey of consciousness, we discover by about age two the belief that the lonely dark nothing of empty space is something after all. That belief in the nothing of empty space anchors further discovery and helps us discover the way the world of objects works. The discovery that the nothing of space is really something not only anchors further discovery for survival, but provides purpose and meaning far beyond survival.

But we begin life by sensing objects and light, not space, and objects and light are actually what reality is all about, not really space. When we no longer sense an object, we come to believe that an empty space now exists where that object was. This belief in empty space allows us to know that the object still exists and is simply now hidden by other objects or by some distance away from us and that is why we no longer sense the object. We come to believe that space exists even though we never sense space directly and even though empty space is simply the lack of an object that is now hidden from view or sensation.

We sense objects and learn their objective properties like color, texture, mass, time delay, and so on and can agree with others about those objective properties. Each object in the universe exists with a well-defined and measurable time delay from us and various time delays from other objects. These time delays are all equivalent to spatial distances from us and other objects and that is how we keep track of objects. We use particular objects called landmarks to provide reference frames for locating other objects, but there is really never any lack of objects in our perception or even anywhere in the universe. In other words, the notions that we have about continuous empty space and time are just that...convenient notions that help us to keep track of objects.

There is a long history of discourse in philosophy about the nature of the nothing of empty space. Why is there something rather than nothing? is a question in a recent book by philosopher Jim Holt, "Why Does the World Exist?" The history of nothing ranges from Zeno in ancient Greece up through modern times with Nietzsche and Wittgenstein. Since we neither sense nor measure the nothing of empty space, there is actually no way to answer such an inexplicable question and this book simply continues the endless discourse about the nature of nothing. The world is existence and so the question reduces to the identity of existence existing and the nature of this identity is obvious.

Philosophy, after all, is an endless discourse about the nature of the universe. Philosophy asks and attempts to answer many inexplicable questions since it is not always clear which questions we can answer. Why there is something rather than nothing is an existential question that has no answer other than the identity; the universe exists because it exists. There is no sense to a discourse about nothing except that nothing is a convenient way to keep track of a lack of objects. Just like the zero of our number system, the notion of the nothing of empty space provides a way of keeping track of a lack of objects of certain kinds. However, there is simply no sense to the absolute lack of all objects including a universe since the universe is what defines what exists and we are an inextricable part of the existence of that universe.

Reality exists as objects, light, and time and with discrete matter, time delay, and action; from just these three axioms all reality emerges. When we sense a red object, in addition to its red color that many others agree is red, we have feelings about that red object that are unique to us. Our unique lifetime of experience with red objects and unique development mean that the red object results in a feeling about the object that is unique for each person. It could be that the red color is an illusion, for example, or that we may see all objects as red because we happen to lack other pigments in our retina.

So it is very important for consciousness to have some kind of anchor as a belief in nothing, which is simply the belief that objects continue to exist even when we no longer see or sense them. After all, when an object hides other objects or when objects are simply out of our immediate perspective or simply be too far away to sense, we say then that there is empty space between us and some background behind where the object was. However, objects simply do not disappear and reappear according to common classical reality.

In our quantum reality, though, objects as matter waves always exist in superposition states and there is a coherent phase that somehow links their futures together. It is quantum phase coherence that provides a kind of glue that binds the universe of both charge and gravity together. Knowing the state of a matter wave provides information on the complementary coherent states of that matter wave everywhere else in the universe as well.

Although instantaneous information transfer cannot occur, quantum entanglement does make it seem like matter-wave information transfers instantaneously across the universe. However, the information about a matter wave state is simply received or felt by each of two quantum observers across the universe and those quantum observers do not transfer or communicate that information across the universe in a classical and deterministic sense of cause and effect.

If two quantum observers know about each other's complementary matter wave phase coherence, they will feel and come to know the complementary events even across the universe. However, the observers do need to know before hand about the common source that created those two events and have discovered the way the universe really works. In other words, there is a quantum bond between the two observers across the universe as a result of the coherence of a common matter wave. These two observers will then have complementary feelings about those two events that they will simply not be able to understand without a lot of prior knowledge.

Quantum Feeling

Even though we as observers might look at and objectively agree with other observers about the sources in the world, how observers subjectively feel about sources is unique to our each lifetime of experience and development. Observers look at and otherwise sense sources and have learned about the objective properties of color, size, mass, etc. and are confident that other observers will agree with the same objective properties. This objective reality of sources is a very common intuition that observers share with each other and observers typically share that objective reality as part of a classical reality.

Sharing stories about the objective properties of sources helps observers survive because they can then depend on other observers as a source of experience to better predict the action of sources and people. Observers do not need to experience the red color of an apple to know that an apple can be red. They can simply look it up on the internet. In principle, all objective reality is knowable and so observers can discover everything about their objective reality. However, there are limitations to what observers can discover about their own subjective reality.

How observers subjectively feel about a source like a red apple is very different from how the apple objectively appears to other observers . This is because even though observers can agree with other observers that an apple is red, the subjective feeling that observers have about a red apple comes from their own unique lifetime of experience with red sources and their unique development of retinal pigments and sensitivity to the light that they see as red. The subjective feeling that observers have about the red color of a source is a fundamental limitation. An observer of themselves as a source is unique to each observer and those immediate subjective sensations can actually be any number of illusions and perception mistakes and therefore not objective at all.

An observer's objective reality discovers sources with properties that conform to classical and realist notions of space and time with largely separate Cartesian sources that only occasionally interact. This is the world of gravity and of Einstein's relativity and is an observer's outer life. In contrast, the subjective reality of observer unique feelings is a source of inner life that is a quantum reality that incorporates phase coherence. Quantum phase coherence relates sources to each other in ways that sometimes seem to violate the classical and realist notions of discrete Cartesian sources. However, it is the inner reality of quantum phase coherence that augments and completes the limitations of an outer reality of the purely classical realism of gravity and relativity.

Although there has been many discussions about what a neural packet of brain matter might be like [see Tegmark 2014, Tononi 2004, Hopfield 1982], there has also been suggestion that quantum uncertainty and entanglement cannot play any role in the neural packets of our brains. [Tegmark 2000] This latter conclusion is based on the the very short dephasing times that occur for neural spikes of action potentials, whose dephasing times on the order of several milliseconds are many orders of magnitude shorter than the dephasing time of a moment of thought, which is around one second.

Of course, there are others who have ventured into the ring of quantum consciousness [Penrose 1989, Stapp 1984, Hameroff 2004] and who have proposed various quantum schemes for the neural matter of our brains. Unfortunately, no one seems to have yet resolved the matter with any kind of measurement like an EEG spectrum.

Given the spectral nature of EEG brain waves, it would seem reasonable to associate the measured EEG mode line widths with the dephasing time of thought. Quantum aware matter packets will dephase with the EEG dephasing time and therefore are the modes of quantum aware matter packets. Spectral line widths of light and acoustics represent both the presence of chaos as well as the dephasing times for the spectral modes of the science of spectroscopy. Associating EEG spectral widths to neural packets dephasing instead of action potential dephasing now means that the mind, despite some chaos, does indeed function as a quantum computer.

Linewidths for the quantum states of spectroscopy are functions of both homogeneous as well as heterogeneous dephasing and dephasing times reflect the lifetime and linewidth of a quantum resonance. Assuming EEG spectral linewidths are truly representative of the homogeneous dephasing times of neural packets means that brain aware matter does indeed represent quantum superposition states. Aware matter particles are not electrons or ions but are rather fermion aware matter particles of bilateral entangled neurons.

In order to qualify as a quantum computer, the brain must show the superposition logic of qubits, which include quantum phase. In digital logic, a bit of information is either 0 or 1 and all computers are based on just such a digital logic as well as internet data packets. In contrast to digital logic, neural logic involves a qubit as a superposition of two states [||, | ] that are like the polarization of light, parallel and perpendicular. Although single qubits will also only be either || or  | , qubits entangle other qubits and that entanglement transmits twice the information of just two digital bits.

This is because two entangled qubits not only carry the numbers 0 to 3 as [||,||], [||, | ],[ | ,||],[ | , | ], the two qubits also carry a binary phase factor that transmits 4 to 7 as [||,||+ | ], [||,||- | ],[ | ,||+ | ],[ | ,||- | ]. Just like light polarized at 45 degree is a superposition of 0 and 90, a qubit can exist as a coherent superposition of states and that superposition doubles its information content.

Moreover, the superposition of qubits in neural packets means that neural matter exists as high order states of coupled neural pairs as aware matter. That is, we can entangle the coherency of our neural packets with those of other people and sources and that coherency is part of our feeling. When I imagine going for a walk in the park, I form a superposition of many possible futures for that walk and yet I only realize a particular future when I actually am walking. Each of the other possible futures is also a part of my reality as memory but those other futures become decoherent with a rate of the aware matter lifetime of about 1 s.

Aware matter as a Quantum Material
The quantum wave equation for aware matter is particularly simple and so the wavefunction is simple as well. The EEG spectrum will be sinc functions (sin x / x), which is the Fourier transform of the aware matter wavefunction.
ma = aware matter particle mass, ~3.2e-30 kg (matter equivalent energy of two synaptic impulses)
Ña = aware matter action constant, ma / 2π / f
n = order of mode for aware matter source, 1 to 64
t = time, s
fa = aware matter source frequency, ~0.5 Hz
ya = aware matter wavefunction
ya with dot = time derivative of ya

This simplicity comes from the fact that aware matter binding energy is equivalent to its resonance energy and when that happens for a quantum matter, the quantum wave functions, ya, are mathematically very simple superpositions of electrical impulse frequencies. Therefore the proportionality is related to the mode frequency as shown and there is a reaction time, ta, which should be around 0.5 s and is the linewidth of the mode. Thus, we do not expect the EEG modes to be transform limited but rather EEG modes will have the linewidth of a single human thought.

There are many obvious ways to test the aware matter hypothesis and indeed, there may already be information out there that shows that aware matter could not exist. However, it is really fun to imagine how such a simple quantum material as aware matter becomes not only a part of our lives, but a part of every neural life. The existence of aware matter would be the unifying force behind all sentient life.

Although observers can in principle know everything about the objective properties of sources, much of knowledge also comes from observer subjective feelings about themselves as a source. Although observers can understand many of their subjective feelings with rational thought, observers do have feelings that are beyond rational thought. Such feelings are a part of observer quantum aware matter and are subject to quantum uncertainty and therefore are quantum feelings.

Friday, November 6, 2015

Quantum Phase and Reality

Quantum phase coherence between an observer and a source is a critical concept that differentiates quantum charge from classical gravity. Quantum phase coherence makes no classical sense in general relativity and so quantum gravity cannot ever exist within the classical confines of GR. There are three different action equations possible for reality, but the choice really just reduces to either quantum charge or classical gravity.

Of the three possible action equations, quantum, classical, and hyperbolic, the  action equation of quantum charge is the Schrödinger equation as
which says that an observer is always related to its own future by some kind of interaction with a source. Seems pretty simple, but the funny i factor means that the future is never absolutely certain since an observer can act on itself as a source.

The classic gravity Hamilton-Jacobi equation in units of time delay and matter change is


and says that an source follows a determinate path, S, unless acted on by another source by the action dm/dt that changes the source orbital period, tp. Even though gravity exists in the same quantum root reality as charge, the gravity of a GR observer does not act on itself. This means that the geodesics of general relativity are not subject to the uncertainty of quantum futures.

In a quantum reality, even gravity matter has phase coherence and shows interference effects and uncertainty since it is light that is the quantum glue that holds both charge and gravity matter together. The symmetry of the gravity biphoton simply means that quantum phase coherence exists for gravity as well as charge. However, the exchange of two gravity biphotons always results in complementary phases and so the resonances between gravity bodies always exchange complementary phase.

A classical photon only transfers intensity from a classical source to a classical observer and does not transfer quantum phase coherence. A quantum photon represents a resonance between an observer and an excited source that transfers both amplitude and phase coherence. A gravity resonance between an observer and a source also represents both amplitude and phase coherence, but a gravity biphoton resonance involves excited states of both observer and source.

The classical Hamilton-Jacobi equation is the beginning of the geodesics of general relativity and it is the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation that shows the time derivative of relativity's action geodesic as a matter wave, Sae, as


The matter-scaled Schrödinger equation Eq. 1 with mR as the Rydberg mass equivalent energy of the hydrogen atom bond provides the matter wave psiae. The strange  i = eπ/2 Euler phase factor simply represents a phase shift of pi/2 or 90° between a matter wave and its time derivative, which is the observer and a source. It is just this phase coherence that is what makes the quantum matter waves of Eq. 3 much different from classical matter waves of Eq. 2.

It is ironic that time and space both emerge from the Schrödinger equation and the actual primitives are that of discrete aether, psiae and discrete action, Sdotae. That is, time and space actually emerge as the discrete dimensionless notions of tau/tauor q/qp from the action derivative of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Schrödinger equation [3].

The classical gravity waves of Eq. 2 also have phase coherence, but classical waves have classical coherence with determinate futures and follow the geodesics of relativity. The quantum path derivative is negative, which points both the arrow of quantum time as well as the phase shift between matter and its derivative of action. The norms or products of complementary quantum matter waves of Eq. 3 result in the classical waves of Eq. 2, but lack quantum phase coherence and uncertainty.

Biphoton exchange applies the same quantum glue of coherent photon phase to gravity.  Bonding an electron and proton is due to the exchange of a photon particle of the Rydberg mass, mR, which is the hydrogen bond. That binding photon today has a complementary and entangled photon emitted at the CMB that together form a biphoton quadrupole. Instead of a single photon, gravity is this irreducible coupling of bond and emitted photons as a biphoton quadrupole. Biphotons are the phase coherent quantum glue that bonds neutral particles to the universe with the quadrupole biphoton force scaled from a photon as tB / Tu x e.

The Schrödinger equation shows that a differential change in an object is orthogonal to itself for both charge and gravity. A differential change in a gravity wave biphoton will also be proportional to itself, but since the biphoton has dipoles with entangled phase, the resulting product wavefunction now commutes and satisfies both quantum Eq. 1 and classical Eqn. 2.

The classical action integral of general relativity, S, has a matter-scaled time derivative related to the Lagrangian that is simply equal to the kinetic minus the Hamiltonian interaction energy. Typical objects have very large numbers of such quantum gravity states along with many fewer quantum charge states. Quantum gravity states tend to be incoherent sums of matter wave norms that represent classical gravity and relativity. Unlike the relatively high energy of atomic bonds, quantum gravity bonds are very much weaker and so involve very much lower frequency biphotons. Any phase coherence of a quantum gravity is typically dominated by the phase coherence of quantum charge and so gravity mass exists largely as matter wave norms without coherent phase.

The hyperbolic wave equation is simply the dSae/dt action wave with a change in sign. The hyperbolic equation describes antimatter with a simple change in sign and antimatter is inherently unstable in the matter universe since antimatter's time arrow is opposit and yet antimatter is stable in the antiverse precursor to the matter universe.
These hyperbolic matter waves still show quantum superposition and interference effects but represent unstable antimatter particles in the matter universe.

Saturday, October 31, 2015

Classical Observers See and Quantum Observers Feel Sources

There are both observers and sources in the world in which we live; objective observers who see the world as others see it and subjective sources who feel about the world as it feels only to themselves. While an objective observer can in principle know everything about the way other observers know the world, a subjective source cannot know everything about how other sources feel about the world or how the world feels to other sources as well.

Objective observers get pleasure discovering the world with senses in contact with sources and those sensations are both how observers discover knowledge and feeling about the world as well. There are no limits to what an objective observer can know besides the complexity of that knowledge, but there are limits to what a subjective source can observe about their own feelings about the world. There are even very simple things like observer feelings about the world that a subjective source can never know.

In particular, there is a property of people and matter called quantum phase coherence that entangles an observer with a source and so subjective observers are quantum observers. Although objective or classical observers can know and agree with others about the objective properties of a source, a quantum observer can only ever know the phase coherence of a source relative to their own phase coherence. Therefore quantum observer feelings about source phase is subjective since it is the observer's feeling alone and no other observer will have the same lifetime of experience and development from which their phase derives.

Classical observers suppose that the world as it really is has classical observers and sources pretty much running around on their own in a vast void of empty space and time. Classical observers do not bump into or affect each other very much and when there are couplings, those perturbations are all completely knowable in a classical determinate and causal universe. There is no self energy in a classical universe.

Continuous space and time are the cornerstones for classical observers and they can pretty much agree with other Cartesians about this Cartesian view, which is what makes a classical reality objective and why the world seems so classical. Cartesian action seems rather more like fate or karma than chance and the initial conditions of the CMB creation seem to determine all of what happens; classical action simply happens without any meaning or intent since classical action is determinate.

How a subjective quantum observer actually feels about the world is a subjective relational view that first of all supposes there is a purpose and meaning for everything that happens and there are no completely determinate futures. Quantum observers depend more on what other quantum observers and sources intend to do instead of what the observers and sources happen to be doing at any moment. A subjective quantum observer depends more on their feelings about sources as well as themselves instead of just on source properties at that moment.

A quantum universe cornerstone is with the exchange of energy and matter that are the actions between quantum observers and sources and quantum observers often feel very differently about the world as compared with classical observers. Since quantum feelings result from each of their own unique histories, quantum actions that result from quantum feelings are therefore not fated or determinate and there are instead many possible futures for both quantum observer and source.

There is a long history of discovery about the dual nature of the world of the body and the world of the mind. This is the duality of classical observers and subjective sources; how classical observers see the world really is versus how quantum observers and sources feel together about the world. Quantum observers feel that there is an inner life made up of souls and minds that coexists with an outer life of classical observers in the physical part of the world made up of bodies and brains.

Classical observers believe that since there is no objective evidence for an inner life of sources made up of souls, the actions of the mind are instead simply very complex and yet completely knowable as the brain matter of the same the outer life. Classical observers therefore believe there is really only one material world composed only of completely knowable observers and sources. An objective classical observer can know everything about the world and there is no meaning to any kind of inner life of quantum sources made up of just souls and minds.

However, there are things about a quantum source's inner life that a classical observer can never know. The subjective world that quantum observers discover by feeling and relationships with sources is different from the objective and material world that classical observers discover along with other Cartesians. The classical Cartesian observer can in principle know all objective properties about an object, and yet complex actions of other observers and objects also make up our material world and that complexity therefore limits what classical observers can know. The noise of chaos often confuses and confounds quantum phase noise, but quantum phase noise is different from the noise of chaos.

The quantum observer has feelings about the aether exchanges among people and sources of an inner life as opposed to the classical observer of people and sources of the outer life of things in and of themselves. In the quantum world of feeling based on aether exchange, while most relationships and feelings are objective and therefore knowable, there are many relationships and feelings that are fundamentally unknowable and yet are still a part of our quantum world.

Therefore discourse about the dual natures of objective and subjective reality are often confused by what a classical observer can know about the complexity of  sources as people and relationships of their outer lives and what a quantum observer can never know about their own inner life. Although there are many things about their outer life that classical observers do not yet know, all of these things are still knowable albeit somewhat obscured by complexity and chaos. Yet there are some things about a quantum observer's inner life that are fundamentally unknowable and yet are still a part of the real world.

Although a classical observer can know everything about the path of a person or source in space and time, a quantum observer cannot know everything about the relationships of that person or source with other people or sources over time. Ironically, the things that a quantum observer can never really know are a part of uncertain futures of quantum relationships with other sources.

Saturday, October 24, 2015

Discovery as Meaning and Purpose

People discover life's meaning and purpose in the pleasure of people and objects coupled with an anxiety about the dark void of nothing that is empty space without people or objects. All people and all life get pleasure in and yet also have anxiety about discovery. All life must discover food, drink, shelter, and community among other needs simply to survive and light the dark void and fill an otherwise empty space with people and objects. The pleasure of discovery of the world drives our meaning and purpose and yet we must temper that pleasure with an anxiety of the unknown dark void of empty space. Among the discoveries that are necessary for survival, there are also many dangers lurking.

Therefore we must also have a certain anxiety about the world that we discover in order to avoid danger and injury. No matter how pleasant a discovery might be, we also need a certain anxiety about our discoveries in order to avoid walking off of cliffs and in front of traffic. We survive and discover meaning and purpose with both the pleasure and anxiety of discovery.

There are many inexplicable questions that have no unique answers. Some of these questions are:

Why is the universe the way that it is? 
Why are we here?
Why are we right here right now?
Why is it us who is right here right now?
What is the universe origin?
What is the universe destiny?
What is the meaning and purpose of the universe?

We ask these questions as part of the pleasure of discovery but these questions all represent the unknowable parts of the universe about which we can feel but can never really know. Although the pleasure of discovery provides an innate meaning and purpose, we can never know why that is. All we can really know is that is simply the way the universe is.

It helps to have a theory of the mind in order to understand how the pleasure and anxiety of emotion are what drive the primitive mind. It is the feeling of our primitive mind by which we make the choices that we make...

Saturday, October 17, 2015

Stonehenge and the Full Moon

In our modern age, we tell time largely by the passage of the sun and the solar day and that means that the sun and not the moon largely determines our modern time. However, people have always used the moon as a way to tell time along with the sun and the legacy of lunar time persists in the calendar month as one cycle of the moon and week as a moon quarter. As a result, lunar time is still deeply embedded into the consciousness of humanity along with solar time. 

Stonehenge is an ancient solar and lunar calendar in Wiltshire, England, that is an arrangement of stones called henges and holes for wooden henges that tell both solar and lunar times. Constructed around 2,600 BCE (over 4,600 years ago) and used for over 1,000 years, the main alignment of Stonehenge shows the directions of the summer and winter solstices as well as spring and autumn equinoxes as shown in the figure below. This alignment with the solstices tells a solar time of year by the sunrise and sunsets of solstices and equinoxes at right angles to the solstices, the four solar celebrations of the ancient Druids.

Stonehenge also tells lunar time with an inner circle of 30 Sarsen stone henges that represent the 29-30 days of the lunar period along with an outer circle of 56 Aubrey pits (wooden henges) that count moon periods and lunar years. Since there are 14 moons for each lunar year, the Aubrey circle counts 4 lunar years with its 56 pits. There are also 7 lunar years for every 8 solar years for the winter/summer solstices of the Stonehenge calendar and that product shows 7 x 8 = 56 lunar solar yrs.

The 56 Aubrey pits allowed Stonehenge to count both the 4 solar celebrations of solstices and equinoxes along with the four interspersed lunar celebrations for 14 solar years and 4 lunar years. The Stonehenge calendar included one lunar celebration as one of the full moons between each pair of solar celebration for a total 8 celebrations that are the same in the modern Druid wheel of 8. Today's modern holidays reflect the 8 celebrations from the ancients.

In principle, there are three full moons on average between each solar celebration, but since the full moon period shifts as much as one moon relative to the solar month, it is important to sometimes choose the first full moon and sometimes the second full moon. That meant that the lunar celebrations would better synchronize with the solar celebrations.
In addition to being a solar calendar of the 4 solar celebrations of solstices and equinoxes, Stonehenge also counted days in a moon period as well as moons in a lunar year in order to intercollate four lunar celebrations. A lunar calendar counts the 14 moons for each lunar year, which means 4 lunar years in the 56 Aubrey holes along with 14 solar years by counting 4 solar celebrations. Solar solstices and equinoxes along with full moons have all traditionally marked Druid ceremonies and that tradition continues today for many modern holidays. From the Chinese New Year’s to Easter and Yom Kippur, the cycles of the moon therefore continue to impact human behavior. Even today, knowledge of the full moon is further helpful for harvesting and hunting and other outdoor activities as well as prediction of the ocean tide.

Many people have proposed that the Stonehenge calendar also predicts solar and lunar eclipses. While it is certainly possible to use a Stonehenge solar-lunar calendar to predict lunar and solar eclipses, eclipse predictions need further knowledge of a third cycle, the Saros 18 yr cycle, and discerning the Saros cycle necessitates centuries of fairly accurate astronomical observations. The day of solar and lunar eclipses repeat every Saros cycle of 18 years and this period predicts both lunar and solar eclipses. During each 18 year Saros cycle, there are about 40 eclipses and so the Saros cycle requires not only a fairly accurate calendar, it requires several centuries of careful observation with reasonably clear skies.

It is not clear that the knowledge of the Saros cycle of eclipses was available to the ancients of Stonehenge and the less than optimum visibility of the sunrise, sunsets, moonrise, and moonsets in that climate would suggest that eclipse predictions would have been very unlikely. Since predicting the time of year and phase of the moon did offer distinct survival advantages, Stonehenge makes perfect sense as both a solar and lunar calendar. However, the precision of the Stonehenge calendar does not seem consistent with the long-term observations needed for eclipse predictions.

Humanity today adjusts our modern calendar month to the rhythm of the solar day and year and we have therefore lost much of the ancient lunar rhythms that tell time with the variable periods of the full moon. A solar calendar month averages 30.4 days each over a non-leap 365 day year, whereas the actual lunar month is 29.53 days for an average full moon period. And yet the periods of the full moon still affect things that happen to humanity. For example, the average female menstrual period is 29.1 days and is closer to the 29.5 days of the average full moon than to the 30.4 days of our average calendar month. In fact, the average gravity period of the lunar orbit is 27.6 days, which is also an important cycle for the changes of full moon periods.

There is a cyclic variation of the period of the full moon due to the coupling of both lunar and solar periods and it is that variation of the full moon period that affects the tides and weather patterns associated with those tidal flows. So the full moon period does have demonstrable affects on human behavior and there is a long history that associates phases of the moon with various behaviors. The word lunacy, after all, comes from the lunar root and the poetry and behavior of people has long association with the lunar phase.

The cycles of lunar full moon period or number of days, though, do not have the same popular following as does following the phases of the moon. The cycles of the lunar period are mainly due to a beating of the period of the full moon, 29.53 days, with the period of the gravity moon orbit, 27.55 days. These two lunar periods result in two beat cycles of 1.13 and 8.85 yrs and that means that there are roughly seven lunar years as cycles of moon periods for every eight solar years. This means that there are 56 moons in 4 lunar years along with 14 solar years with 4 solstices/equinoxes to make the 56 solar celebrations in 14 solar years. There are also 4 lunar celebrations to make up the 8 celebrations of each Druid year.

The Chinese lunar calendar is several thousand years old and places the winter solstice in the eleventh lunar month, which means the New Year is usually the second new moon after the winter solstice. The Christian Easter is the Sunday following the first full moon after the spring equinox, but as determined by the ancient Nicene and not a modern calendar. There are many other religious holidays that remain anchored to the full moon period and so continue to affect human behavior.

The fractional periods of the moon relative to the solar periods make moon predictions difficult. Lunar calendars are always therefore more complex than solar calendars and this was true for ancient peoples of the Stonehenge. Knowledge of the Saros eclipse period of 18.03 years predicts both lunar and solar eclipses, traditional harbingers of fortune, but the Saros period takes many years of observation. The Saros period comes from the moon period between when it crosses the sun's path, which is 27.2 days. This lunar cycle beats at 18.6 yrs and 18 yrs is the intersection of the three lunar periods.

The variability of the period of the full moon is quite well known and largely due to the beating of the full moon period of 29.53 days with the period of the lunar gravity orbit of 27.55 days. The beating of these two frequencies results in a variation of full moon periods with cycles of both 1.13 and 8.85 years as shown in the figure. The precise measurement of the earth-moon distance with a reflected laser pulse has shown that the earth-moon distance increases by 38 mm per year. Given the 384,400 km average earth-moon distance, 38 mm/yr means that the moon orbit period slows by 0.31 ppb/yr, very close to the expected 0.26 ppb/yr of classical aethertime decay, but far less than the variability due to other factors.

This figure shows the period of full moons as a function of fractional solstice year where each year begins on the winter solstice, Dec. 20th. The coincidence of the winter solstice with a peak in the full moon period occurs every 8 solar years, but only seven lunar years. This fundamental difference between solar and lunar periods is what the stone and wooden henges seems to represent.

Sunday, October 4, 2015

Aethertime Quantum Entanglement and Phase Coherence

Phase coherence is a property of quantum sources that classical sources do not seem to have, but in fact phase coherence affects all observers and sources in the universe, just in different ways. Instead of the single knowable state of a classical source, say a red color, two quantum sources with coherent phase can exist in a coherent superposition of states, say both red and blue. This entanglement can occur even though those the quantum sources might be located across the universe from each other.

The exact object color of one source is unknowable until an observer sees that source as red or blue. The observation of one of two coherent source superposition states as red then immediately determines the other source state as blue even across the universe. Before the measurement, though, the two sources existed as a superposition of both red and blue and so the exact state of both sources in the past is unknowable.

There is a knowable phase coherence that two classical objects also exhibit, but for classical objects in general relativity, all reality is determinate and therefore classical coherent states are knowable. A classical observer might not know which of two a classical sources is red or blue, but that classical knowledge is always knowable. That is, once an observer sees one classical source as red, they also immediately know that the other classical source is blue even if the other classical source lies across the universe. However, the colors for each of the two classical sources were always classically knowable and once an observer sees a classical source as red, they know that it was always red. There are no superposition states for classical sources nor is there any decay of the phase coherence between two classical sources except due to perturbations from other sources.

Classical determinate sources in general relativity do not appear to show quantum phase coherence, but really it is the decoherence of quantum phase that makes quantum sources different from classical sources, not really phase coherence per se. After all, two classical sources with coherent colors also remain perfectly coherent in a determinate classical universe in the absence of perturbations. Those two coherent colors represent determinate geodesic paths for general relativity as well.

On the one hand, correlated colors for two classical sources represent something that an observer can know about each source. Even though the observer might not know the color of either source to begin with, once seeing that a classical object is red, the classical observer also then immediately knows that classical sources was always red. The observer also then immediately knows that the source's coherent twin's color was blue even across the universe and that twin had its classical correlation for the same period of time.

Unlike two classical sources, two coherent quantum sources somehow oscillate between those coherent color states as a superposition of amplitudes and do not exist as either one or the other colors until an observation or some other action dephases them. In the quantum universe, dephasing is an inextricable part of seeing or measuring the color of a quantum source and immediately tells the observer the state of its coherent twin even across the universe. Since decoherence is an inextricable part of all sources in the universe, observers can never be absolutely certain about the natures of objects that they sense. That is because neither quantum twin existed as red nor blue prior to the measurement or action that dephased one of the sources into a red or blue state.

The mystery of quantum entanglement has to do not really with why a quantum source can be either of two colors or how two quantum sources can remain coherent with each other across time and space. The mystery of quantum entanglement has to do with even when an observer sees that an source is red, they still simply cannot know that that same source was always red before they observed it. As soon as the nearby quantum object is red for certain, the distant source decoheres to blue and stops its oscillation between red and blue. The distant quantum source can now only be blue even though before that time, it's state was not knowable.

Although quantum charge is a local force with very fast decoherence, quantum gravity is a long range force that has a much slower decoherence. In aethertime, every quantum charge state like red and blue with very fast decoherence has a complementary quantum gravity state with much slower decoherence. In fact, quantum gravity states exist with the decoherence times of the universe. While quantum charge is a very local force, quantum phase is also part of the glue that holds the universe together.

The color of a red source is due to a large number of photons of light across a wide spectrum of light around that red color. When we see a classical source as red, we sense only a very small fraction of a very large number of photons emanating from that red source. For such large and macroscopic classical sources as red apples, a red color is a property of a very large number of particles at the surface of that source.

In contrast to the color of a classical source, the color of a quantum source may be due to just one photon of light interacting with a single particle. Since observer eyes are not sensitive to just one photon, observers must use spectrometers to know whether a single particle is red or blue. That single photon still represents a whole spectrum of frequencies superimposed as a single time pulse that bonds the observer to the particle for some period of decoherence. During that superposition between the observer and the particle, the observer oscillates along with the particle between the possible futures of red or blue. When the observer becomes decoherent from the particle, that leaves the observer in the red or blue state as well as the quantum gravity state that goes along with the color.

The phase coherence of a quantum source decays as a result of not only measurement, but also due to perturbations with other objects just like perturbations affect the classical spins of objects. The decay of phase coherence is due to the classical noise of chaos as well as quantum phase noise and there is simply no classical meaning for quantum phase noise.

The meandering decay of earth's spin period means that a day has varied from +1.4 to -1.5 ms every year over the last 43 years (see figure below) and there are many different factors that perturb Earth's spin by as much as 4 ms per day. In a determinate classical universe, all of these perturbations are knowable and even in a quantum universe, most of these perturbations are likewise knowable. However the quantum dephasing of the universe at 0.255 ppb/yr has no cause other than being simply a property of the universe. Quantum decoherence is an assumption Earth's spin decay that is an unconditioned axiom of the universe.

According to reports, the Earth day has lost from 1.7 ms [0.20 ppb/yr, McCarthy and Seidelmann, 2009] to 2.4 ms [0.28 ppb/yr, Stephenson and Morrison, 1984] over the last 100 years, both decays are consistent with the classical 0.26 ppb/yr decoherence of aethertime within the uncertainty of the measurements. The dephasing of the universe represents phase information that is lost to observers of that same universe since observers dephase along with all other sources in the universe. However, the local decoherence rate does show up in various decays of matter and force and those measurements do provide an absolute velocity relative to the aethertime universe boundary. The shrinking of the universe in this epoch is what defines the speed of light, c, in aethertime.

Therefore, quantum entanglement and decoherence both represent a loss of information as quantum phase noise and so observers cannot know all quantum phase perturbations. While classical entanglement represents knowable perturbations with a determinate universe of local cause and effect, quantum entanglement also involves decoherence of quantum phase commensurate with the universe decay.

Wednesday, September 2, 2015

Sources as Matter Waves in Our Spectral Reality

A source exists in two complementary representations; as an objective pulse of matter in time and as a subjective matter spectrum at a given moment. A source is a superposition of simpler sources and past matter actions that have all accreted smaller sources into a present moment and the present moment is therefore a superposition of those past actions. That superposition in time represents an objective Cartesian particle reality and corresponds to the material reality that we imagine exists outside of our minds.

However, the superposition in a matter spectrum represents how the source relates to the rest of the universe and to that source's many possible futures. A matter spectrum of wave-like phase and amplitude represents a source as a superposition of possible futures. That matter spectrum represents a relational wave-like reality and corresponds to the immaterial or ideal reality that we imagine exists within our minds. Consciousness is a matter spectrometer that measures the properties of an source at a given moment. Although a matter spectrum represents a source's fixed past, the evolution of that matter spectrum includes many possible futures and is not fixed.

The present moment of an source is both the known or at least knowable Cartesian representation along with the uncertainty of its relations with other sources. A Cartesian source comprises a knowable fossil record of its past matter spectrum while a relational source comprises the uncertainty of the many possible futures of what that source might become. All that we know about a source in the present moment, though, is its matter spectrum or color and one particular color is time delay.

A Cartesian source is made up of fossil matter moments in the present moment with only the actions of a chaotic past where that the source came into existence as in the above figure. A relational source is a superposition of all of its possible futures as a matter spectrum and there are many possible futures that equally well and uniquely describe each source. Even though a source will only ever realize one particular future, the totality of all of the source's other possible futures completely describes that source just as the superposition of its past actions also completely describe the source.

Each source is then equivalent to a superposition of matter wave amplitudes and phases over all time and when those matter waves constructively interfere, an source exists. When an source's matter waves all have a common phase and coherence, that property is the time delay of that source from an observer. Each source also exists in a present moment as a superposition of its possible futures, which are the many matter spectra that include source relations with the entire universe at the present moment. Matter waves will have different phases or possibilities that appear in more than one possible location in space from a source, but matter waves are tied to a common time delay from a source. An observer says that a source exists when they observe it in one place in space as a clump of mass or intensity with one common time delay. But before a source exists at that one time delay as intensity, it may have had coherent amplitudes and therefore other possible futures in more than one location.

Once an observer experiences a source's actual future as the present, all of its other possible futures then decay away. However, all of the other possible futures do not instantaneously dissipate and rather the other futures decay over finite times. The present moment is then a superposition of possible futures and a source can therefore exist in many states during some very short dephasing time.

Matter waves represent all of a source's possible futures and the possibilities of a source all exist before the realization of an source in just one place with just one phase and that one future becomes the present moment. Interactions with other sources in the past localize or dephase most sources that we experience, but there are some sources that continue to exist as superpositions of coherent phase and only localize or dephase when we personally experience or dephase them ourselves. Such matter waves comprise the time moments of a source and with its time moments frozen in the past, sources that we observe in the present have all existed as matter wave superpositions sometime in the past as well.

Observers are also sources and they are bound into a universe of matter and action. Observers exchange matter as waves of amplitude and phase with sources and that matter exchange binds observers to those other sources. What observers sense about a source comes from the light, sound, touch, taste, and smell of that source and from these subjective sensations observers imagine a Cartesian source in one location with one phase. This would be philosophy's source in and of itself, our objective reality, but what we call objective reality is just one of the many possible futures for spectral sources.

We can share and agree with others about measurements of sources with various instruments and techniques that discover all kinds of properties of objective reality, which essentially are the matter spectra of an source. Mass, time, spatial displacement, porosity, color, temperature, etc., are all properties that observers measure and those measurements form an objective reality for each source as a superposition of its matter spectra. Other observers can perform the same measurements and pretty much agree on the same objective properties of a source , its qualia, within some uncertainty. We further imagine that we exchange light and matter with all sources and that exchange is actually how we relate physically to the sources we imagine.

Instead of just our sensations, which are ours alone, we can also agree with other observers about the objective properties of a source, properties that we actually only know subjectively. Thus we imagine sources exist in the Cartesian space outside of our mind and yet we know that we only sense some very few of the many possible futures of those sources by exchange of matter and light and we are just part of one of those possible futures. What we sense are the time delays of a source along with any changes in time delays or matter.

We do not sense matter wave amplitude or phase, rather we sense matter wave intensity, which is the product of the matter wave amplitudes and typically no longer entangles phase coherence. Moreover, each sensation or measurement only represents a limited number of the total possible futures for the source's matter spectrum. While a matter wave that we sense only represents one possibility for an source, we still imagine a complete reality for that source despite the limitations of sensation.

However, we can infer what a single matter wave is like by repeated measurements of a portion of a coherent superposition of identical matter waves. If we were inside of a low frequency but high intensity superposition of coherent photons, we can know what the photon matter wave is like by repeated sampling of its identical superimposed photons. When we sense a potential as voltage, we absorb a small number of photons of the energy of that superposition and infer the nature of the rest of the superposition as a source. When we sense a photon at one Hz with an amplitude of one hundred thousand volts, the electric field that is a 100,000 volt amplitude polarizes in one direction, with plenty of sparks and charging, and later we feel no electric field, and then the electric field polarizes opposite with similar fireworks. So, have we sensed a photon wavefunction or just the collapse of a photon wavefunction?

Is the wavefunction of the photon real or just imaginary? The amplitude of a single photon at a frequency of 1 Hz is only 60e-9 volts, sixty billionths of a volt, and so there would be something like 6e13 coincident photons to make up the current of a 100,000 volt wavepacket. So we sense the details of this wavepacket by consuming some small fraction of its photons and presume that the rest of the wavepacket is made up of identical photons. Thus, we can actually measure the shape of a wavefunction by using scaling arguments and that makes it real.

The amplitude of earth's orbit is a gravity wave at 3.2e-8 Hz and that wave is a very small matter exchange. This gravity wave is the quadrupole photon pair whose exchange with the sun holds the earth to the sun and amounts to a matter wave exchange with the sun of 0.15 earth masses per year. While the earth and sun exchange a large number of dipole photons of lights, it is the excahnge of a very small fraction of quadrupole photon exchanges that we call gravity force.

As long as we can create a large number of coherent and identical photons, we can measure to arbitrary precision the form of the wavefunction for that photon using a scaling argument. It is in this sense that we can show that a wavefunction or matter wave exists as amplitude. Science uses imaginary numbers to help represent cyclic action of a matter wave since the real term represents an in-phase amplitude while the imaginary term represents an out-of-phase amplitude.

The nature of our quantum reality is a collection of oscillating matter waves and quantum action represents the in phase reality with real terms and the out of phase reality with imaginary terms. The real and imaginary terms simply represent the in and out of phase parts of reality that are both solutions to the Schrödinger equation. The reality of phase coherence for matter tends to confuse us because our sensation of a source, i.e. its mass, oscillates with periods that are far beyond sensation. We do sense many properties of light, however, that are due to its oscillation and so it seems like light and matter are very different sources when in fact light is just another manifestation of matter.

Any pair of gravity bodies can have superposition orbits at their Lagrange points, which are points in an orbit where forces are equal and opposite. Smaller sources on these Lagrange orbits A and B have two possible futures around either of the two large bodies like the earth and moon and such sources can then show coherence between orbits. Lagrange points appear to prepare matter into coherent gravitational states that show interference and exchange effects that quantum gravity generates.

Lost In Space was a 1960’s sitcom that was very popular and now lost in space is a metaphor for what is lacking with mainstream science’s approach to the cosmos. Einstein gave us two very important precepts that have greatly helped us to understand the nature of the universe, mass-energy equivalence and gravity delay of light. But Einstein's relativity also left science with a intractable determinism incommensurate with our quantum logic. Space and motion are simple incommensurate between relativity and quantum actions for the same source.

The foundation of general relativity is that energy is equivalent to matter as the mass-energy equivalence, E = mc2, or MEE. What MEE means is that source motion as kinetic energy in space is equivalent to an increase in the inertial mass of the source. Turning MEE around means that space and motion actually emerge from changes in the inertial mass of a source over time. So, a source’s action is then a result of a change in its mass and so mass-energy equivalence is not due to motion per se. Rather, motion and space are both the result of MEE and it is kinetic matter that represents kinetic energy and therefore motion in space emerges from kinetic matter. Correspondingly, space itself emerges from the different time delays that we sense for sources and their backgrounds. When the time delays do not change, the potential matter changes such as gravity represent potential energy from which emerges fields in space. While science normally imagines that fields exist a priori in an otherwise empty void of space, our notion of space actually emerges from the unchanging time delays among sources that represent all possible futures.

Mass-energy equivalence results in the dilation of time and with the Lorentz factor, spatial dilation emerges from MEE. Thus it is the very subtle changes in matter over time that describes all action and so motion in space is in some sense simply how we interpret the changes in time delays that we sense as the very subtle changes of matter in time that are action.

Continuous space and motion are two very important notions that represent reality very well. However, continuous space and motion are simply fundamentally incommensurate between gravity and quantum action. In order to fashion a nice quantum gravity, it is necessary to use the notions of discrete matter and time delay to make the quantum action of charge force consistent with a quantum gravity. This approach, called discrete matter and time delay, replaces the pivotal and intuitive role of continuous spatial displacement for action that is the basis of mainstream science. Action in matter time instead involves discrete exchanges of matter among sources over time and it is from those exchanges that the realities of space and motion emerge from how we imagine the cosmos. The simple axioms of matter and a two dimensional time are then consistent with the very powerful tools of quantum action to also define the realm of gravity action.

Gravity results in deflections as well as stable orbits of bodies in space, but gravity also compresses matter in sources and that compression heats the body. In stars, compression and heating results in quantum action of fusion of elements yielding large amounts of heat and light and neutrinos. Gravity compression is the increased bonding states between matter particles by the gravity action of other matter particles of a body. Gravity compression results in mass loss from the radiation of heat and a concomitant formation of potential matter in the compression of the bonds between electrons and protons.

It is somewhat ironic that it is the matter loss as the radiation of heat that leads to the nuclear bonds of fusion that then release even more heat and light and neutrinos. The heat generated by gravitational compression conducts to the surface of the body and radiates as light just as the heat of fusion also conducts to the surface and radiates, but that diffusion of heat can take tens of millions of years for a body like our sun. In other words, the heat of our sun today was the result of fusion that occurred tens of millions of years ago in the sun's center.

The radiation of photons into the universe as heat seems to be simply a byproduct of gravity compression of matter. Gravity compresses the matter of a body and that compression heats the body by pushing the electrons of atoms and molecules closer together. The nuclei of those atoms then move to the new minimum potential energy and that motion is the kinetic energy that we call heat. In reality, it is that radiation that causes gravity force compression, not the other way around. We can equally well imagine correlated pairs of quadrupole photons radiating from the surface of a body as causing the gravity action that compresses that body as vice versa. In other words, science tends to think of gravity action as heating a source by compression and the heat emitting from the surface as dipolar light. Even though this is largely true, it is also the action of photon quadrupole emission at the surface and the diffusion of heat to the surface that represents the bonding of potential matter that we think of as gravity action.

Charge force represents the bonding of electrons to nucleons and is due to the exchange of photons between electrons and nucleons. Each bonding photon in matter represents an exchange that has a complementary photon exchange that further bonds that matter to the universe as gravity force. Gravity force is the result of the bonding of the matter of the universe to both electrons and nucleons by the exchange of photons between the universe and the body. The basic decay of matter, mdot, is a dephasing decay of the universe boson matter that represents all force.

What this means is that the difference between a photon as a binding particle for quantum action and a photon as complementary binding particle for gravity action is in the ratio of electron to gaechron mass. A photon emitted to the universe creates a binding state with the universe that complements the photon bound state of charge force, which is a binding state of electron mass. This complementarity provides the logical connection between charge and gravity forces into the single unified theme of quantum action.

The time periods of quantum and gravity action are the two clocks that define our reality. While the atomic clock represents time as resonance of an electron-proton bond, the gravity clock of our cosmos ticks with the resonance of the billions of years of a universe pulse in time. Thus, the ratio of these two clock pulses represents the 1e39 difference between charge and gravity forces that bedevils science's imagination.

A two dimensional time represents the time of both our microscopic reality as well as the time of our macroscopic reality as the cosmos. While we live in what we call proper time, a time that is between atomic and cosmic times, each source action occurs with time as a dipole with both amplitude and phase and each pair of sources represent a time quadrupole and it is that time quadrupole that represents the time of both charge and gravity forces.

Monday, August 31, 2015

Aethertime Is Consistent with Electromagnetism, Gravity, and Quantum

There are three related by still different descriptions for electromagnetism with the first being the through-space electric and magnetic fields of Maxwell equations at the top of the figure below. By far, the Maxwell equations are the most useful for predicting electromagnetism, but are limited for relativistic or quantum conditions. The second way to describe electromagnetism is with the four-vector potential of four-space of relativity, as the second figure, and the description helps define relativistic electromagnetism. For quantum conditions, a third description involves is a space filled with the virtual photons of quantum electrodynamics as the third figure shows. All three descriptions propagate electric and magnetic fields between objects and all three are useful in their limited realms.

However, none of these three explanations apply near or inside of the singularities of continuous space, motion, and time; black holes and event horizons. The event horizons of black holes, universe expansion, and the very small black hole that plagues continuous gravity at the center of every particle, all of these singularities have neither electromagnetic nor gravity according to mainstream science.

There is then a fourth explanation, aethertime, a discrete aether in time that can also be a quasi-continuum of aether in time. Instead of a photon being a fundamental virtual particle, a photon is a stationary aether excitation in a universe of decaying aether. It is all matter that is in motion relative to this photon rest state and that aether decay drives both charge and gravity actions.

Motion in continuous space involves the exchange of aether particles among objects while motion of charge involves the exchange of aether photons and photons carry both electric and magnetic fields. Thus it becomes quite straightforward to represent electromagnetic fields with aether exchange in the same way that virtual photon exchange with vacuum oscillators represent electromagnetic fields. However, instead of the infinity of vacuum oscillators that is QED, aethertime has a large but finite number of discrete aether.

Just as the principles of QED are not more useful than Maxwell’s equations for representing the vast majority of action in EM, aethertime likewise is not necessarily more useful than the three above tools. However, at the singularities of continuous space, motion, and time, the second dimension of time, aether decay time, keeps the clock running and the lights on. The event horizons of a black hole and the expanding universe both are transitions from fermion matter to boson aether. The only true event horizon in aethertime is where it belongs…defining the edge of the aethertime universe.

The tenets of aethertime represent the same reality as mainstream science for EM, quantum, and gravity. However, the notions of continuous space, motion, and time are limited by the event horizon singularities of mainstream science; very small scale, black holes, and the universe event horizon. Furthermore, the inner core of a neutron star also appears to have a boson singularity.

The CMB represents a very uniform light emission at 2.7 K from the creation of hydrogen and other light elements. In the shrinking aethertime universe, the CMB temperature is actually 0.64 K in its rest frame where the speed of light at the CMB is only 6% of c, the value in this epoch. The surface temperature of the CMB would then be related to the ionization energy of hydrogen in that epoch and a black hole today would therefore now be at the ionization energy of hydrogen, 13.6 eV or 158,000 K. At this temperature, the UV emission from hydrogen is called the Lyman series and the Lyman alpha band is a prominent feature of many active galactic nuclei with z > 2.

In fact, very large Lyman alpha blobs of hydrogen gas in the very early universe seem to be associated with new galaxy formation with a particularly large LAB called Himiko appearing at z = 6.6. The recent report of a galaxy at z = 8.7, EGS8p7, that shows Lyman alpha emission is further consistent with the very early formation of galaxies around black holes.

Saturday, August 22, 2015

Aethertime Augments Spacetime

The two bubbles of spacetime quantum and general relativity with their conjugates of momentum and position exist within the aethertime universe as shown in the figure below. Aethertime unifies charge and gravity as time-scaled versions of the same aether decay and so a shrinking aethertime universe is what unifies quantum charge and general relativity's gravity forces. Unification has eluded many very smart people for nearly a century, but aethertime unifies charge and gravity forces with the same time scaling that also unifies an antimatter antiverse with our matter universe into a the growth and decay of a single aether pulse in time. As a result, aether decay shows that it is the disparate notions of spacetime itself that precludes unification with a pernicious elusiveness that even very smart people simply have not yet been able to figure out. That does not mean that I am smarter than everyone else, just luckier...and grateful for the many very precise measurements of objects and time that show aether decay.
Einstein's general relativity (GR) describes motion with a continuous gravity force that moves objects along determinate paths called geodesics in the void of empty and continuous space and time. The green ellipse in the figure shows the predictions of GR. In contrast, quantum theory as the red ellipse moves objects with discrete expectation values of momentum and position with charge force mediated by photon exchange. Quantum excitations result in motion along uncertain paths in that same space, which is now full of vacuum oscillators, that space where gravity motion involves determinate paths.

While the continuous spin of the earth tells a continuous gravity time with discrete aether decay, the discrete ticks of atomic clocks and the discrete spin of atomic matter tell a much more precise quantum time. Since there is not a quantum expectation value for time, quantum time is discrete and fully reversible even while gravity leads to a determinate and continuous expanding universe with a continuous gravity time.

In GR, space, motion, and time all become undefined at the event horizons of large matter accretions known as black holes and just beyond the CMB as well as at very small scale, the Planck scale. Spacetime has recognized these limitations for many years, but spacetime still does not show any other way to predict the futures of objects without continuous space, motion, and time. The very definition of space is odd since space is a void of nothing that we cannot sense in a continuum of time and space. Spacetime only assumes that space exists because all of the objects moving around need space as a way to be different from each other and so it is our sensations of objects that inform us about space.

The evidence that spacetime has for the nothing of empty space depends, then, on objects not changing and being constant. Objects may move from one place to another in spacetime and emit or absorb energy and mass, but total object mass and energy must always conserved in any action in empty space. Of course, if an object loses mass by emission, the motion of that mass involves kinetic energy, which increases the mass relative to the rest frame and so the accounting of constant relativistic mass must be done very carefully.

Both charge and gravity forces act through space, but while photons mediate charge force, gravity force simply cannot have a carrier particle since gravity is by its very nature continuous in a continuous space and time. Since there is only one time dimension in GR, atomic time, the continuum of gravity force means that space and time become undefined in the universe at both very small and very large mass accretions, including at beyond the CMB, which is now at 0.9991c. Once the CMB transitions to 1.0c, it will move beyond the event horizon of spacetime, which seems like a really unlikely universe.

Aethertime is an alternative way to keep track of objects with discrete aether and time delay and as a bonus, aether decay becomes the genesis of all force. Discrete aether, matter exchange, and time delay represent a more general aethertime reality that augments and wraps around spacetime's more limited continuous space, motion, and time and so aethertime does not suffer from the same limitations of spacetime. Aethertime predicts motion with discrete aether exchanges in a fully quantum action and discrete time delays for even very large and very small objects, and now aethertime augments the limitations of the continuous motion of continuous space and time with a complete universe.

Instead of predicting motion with fields of force in the vacuum of space, aethertime predicts motion with matter exchange and aether decay. The decay of discrete aether is now an inherent property of aethertime from which emerge the fields of force that are inherent properties of continuous space, motion, and time. Unlike the nothing of empty space which we never by definition measure or sense, there is plenty of evidence for discrete aether decay in the many measurements of object mass decays that show the same very slow decay over time, 0.26 ppb/yr. These measurements include the IPK primary mass standard, the earth spin, the earth-moon orbital period, milky-way to Andromeda time delay, and the average decay of several thousand neutron stars as millisecond pulsars.

While objects in spacetime appear to have constant mass over atomic time, all objects in aethertime decay along with the rest of the universe over the very long time scales of aethertime. And of course, the natures of both charge and gravity forces derive from the same decay of aether, which appears to act through space. However, aether does not exist in space and so space has zero density, but aether decay does result in a pressure for space. A pressure for space with zero density is equivalent to an incompressible aether.

The period of atomic time also decays over aether time as do c, h, and α, which really changes how we interpret the distant objects of deep space including the decays of millisecond pulsar neutron stars and the red shifts of distant galaxies. The decay of discrete aether mediates both charge and gravity forces in aether time, which for charge is by exchange of the dipolar photon while for gravity is by the exchange of mono/quadrupole photon pairs scaled by the time size of the universe. Therefore, charge and gravity forces are both mediated by the same aether exchange and decay with the scaling of the universe time size. In addition to atomic time, there is a second time dimension, aether time, and discrete aether and time now predict action for all of universe, including both very small and very large mass accretions.

Unlike the lonely void of empty space, objects are never alone in a universe of discrete aether. We exist as part of the discrete aether whose exchange connects us with all other objects. Discrete ether has both mass and spin and is the basic building block and aether decay is the binding force of the entire universe, not just for observable particles. Our notion of two particles in relative motion in continuous space emerges from the discrete aether exchange between those particles and their time delays. While neither atomic time nor continuous space have meaning at the event horizon of a black hole, aether time represents an event horizon as simply a transition from fermion matter and atomic time to discrete boson matter and time delay.