Sunday, August 9, 2015


Quantumology is the belief that quantum action describes all force and that gravity is a discrete quantum force. Quantumology necessarily begins with some kind of universal particle, like a discrete aether, and the decay of discrete aether then defines all force. What this means is that the photon diploe exchange that defines charge force also then defines a photon pair as the monopole-quadrupole force of gravity. Photon pairs as monopole-quadrupoles then bond neutral matter particles for quantum gravity and are scaled versions of the photon dipole emissions that bond charged particles.

A very simple way to scale gravity force from charge dipole force is to wrap the universe onto itself and let the ratio of the time delay of the atom to the time delay of the universe scale gravity. In other words, the charge dipole force acts locally between the charges of an atom as well as globally as a monopole-quadrupole force when the universe wraps onto itself in time. Gravity force is simply charge force scaled by the ratio of the time delay of an atom with the time delay of the universe as a pulse in time. This simple statement of unification is completely consistent with mass-energy equivalence, Lorentz invariance, gravitational radiation, and many of the other precepts of general relativity. This simple way of unifying gravity and charge force is not yet accepted by mainstream science.

However, the notions of discrete aether, matter exchange, and time delay are much more general that the notions of continuous space, motion, and time as axioms. Continuous space and motion are not congruent between gravity and charge forces and that incongruence precludes unification within the limits of continuous space and time. Instead of continuous space and motion, unification necessitates a pair of conjugates that are congruent and compatible for both charge and gravity forces.

Even though continuous space and motion are very intuitive and deeply embedded into our consciousness, the notions of continuous space and motion are not a priori axioms for all action. Discrete matter and time delay as the proper conjugate quantum operators apply even beyond the current limits of continuous space and motion, which bound more typical conjugates of space and momentum. Space and momentum still have the same meanings and utility for many predictions of action, but for both very large and very small scales, there are no expectation values for space and momentum. Time, for example, has a fundamental two dimensional representation instead of a single continuous dimension of spacetime and time reflects the nature of the boson aether pulse that is the universe.

Things happen to objects of matter in the universe because of the actions of both gravity and charge and we think of gravity and charge as being very different, but in fact they are simply different manifestations of the same force of aether decay at much different scale. The scale ranges from the time delay of the atom to the overall time delay the universe aether pulse. While charge force is a result of the boson matter decay of the universe, gravity force is a result of the fermion decay of microscopic matter. While the universe is mostly boson aether, it is fermion matter that makes up common objects.

The action of the earth's gravity creates stone from cooling inner molten magma and it is the microscopic charges of stone's atoms and molecules that hold those stones together. The much weaker action of gravity is only evident in holding those stones and us to earth's surface, but gravity is what makes earth earth. Someone building a stone wall depends on gravity not only to keep them and the stone wall bound to earth, that gravity also compresses and slightly heats stones in the actions of building a stone wall. That very slight heating of the stone is part of the gravity force of earth and leads to much greater heating of the inner earth.

Action is both what forms objects like stones from atoms and action is how we form objects like stone walls from stone. In both cases, smaller moments of matter come together to form larger objects. The heat and pressure of earth's gravity makes stone while people gather those stones and make stone walls on earth’s surface for some purpose. The gravitational bond between the stones in the wall and the earth heats the stones up very slightly on earth's surface and it is that radiative and conductive cooling that results in the bonding that we call gravitational compression.

Gravity describes how most things of common experience happen and simply depends on mass action, like the action of a deterministic path of an apple falling from a tree. Gravity results in a very deterministic cause and effect universe where it appears that all action results in only local effects. Our notions of space and momentum emerge from the actions of gravity on objects that we sense.

Charge describes how the microscopic actions of atoms and molecules of matter objects happen with quantum matter with both phase and amplitude. Quantum charge is how the apple grew on the tree in the first place and quantum charge released the apple from the tree into gravity mass action. Charge results in a wavelike and probabilistic universe that allows the matter wave amplitude of one object to affect the matter wave amplitude of another object instantaneously across the universe. As a result, both philosophy and science therefore have very different interpretations of the very different natures of gravity and charge actions.

Quantumology is the belief that gravity is just a scaled version of charge force and that quantum of gravity force is a coherent photon pair as a monopole-quadrupole. Although mainstream science and general relativity are not consistent with this view of quantum gravity, the decay of discrete aether and time delay are consistent with quantum gravity.

Charge bonds involve matter exchange between objects while gravity bonds also involve matter exchange between objects and the universe. Motion in the universe emerges from a change in an object’s inertial mass as equivalent energy and it is that exchange of aether that we call object momentum. Changes in an object’s inertial mass or kinetic energy define an object’s action for a given frame of reference while gains and losses of mass as impulse change object momentum. Although motion is a very common way to define momentum in space, the dimensionless ratio of velocity squared to the speed of light squared in ppb is embodied in the dimensionless Lorentz factor.

The equivalence of matter and energy means that velocity and acceleration are equivalent to changes in inertial mass. The dimensionless Lorentz factor impacts space, matter, and time even while most object action involves gains and loses of ordinary matter as impulsive momentum, which typically overwhelm changes in inertial mass. What we call the fields of charge or gravity force are actually matter exchanges among objects that result in acceleration and changes in object velocities. Charge and gravity fields are potential matter, which is the rate of change of inertial matter in time and is that proper matter that comes into existence as velocity or kinetic matter from an inertial frame. In matter time, fields in space are simply a manifestation of the exchange of matter between objects and those matter exchanges are the forces or accelerations of potential matter.

The decay of all universe matter with time, mdot, is in fact a fundamental principle of matter time and is the determinant of both gravity and charge actions, just at very different scales. This decay constant is simply a restatement of charge and gravity forces as cross sections and is equivalent to the dimensionless universal decay of all matter, αdot, at 0.255 ppb/yr. For charge force, αdot applies to the electron mass as the fundamental fermion while for gravity force, αdot applies to the gaechron mass as the fundamental boson, which is some 1e-39 times less than the electron mass.

Currently science uses two somewhat inconsistent theorets to separately predict the gravity and quantum futures of objects in time. This patchwork approach actually works very well for predictions of action within certain scales, but mainstream science yearns to describe gravity as part of a unified quantum action that includes both charge and gravity.

Gravity action is what holds us to the earth as well as what holds the earth in orbit around the sun and gravity action holds the rest of the greater universe together as well. So, gravity action is the way that we predict how objects move for much of our very deterministic and causal and chaotic reality here on earth and gravity action is how we measure the billions of years of our universe time delay. We have come to know gravity action as general relativity but still gravity action scales with the mass distribution of objects and gravity does not depend on exactly what the matter is.

Gravity action in matter time is very simply related to the binding of objects to the boson matter of the universe. Just like the quantum bonds of electrons to nuclei, the quantum bonds of atoms to the universe boson matter result in the attraction between neutral objects that we call gravity. Gravity is a quantum excitation that involves correlated pairs of photons as a mono-quadrupole time and for most common gravity action, quadrupole time is equivalent to proper time, τ. This approximation does not account for any quantum exchange effects, where the exchange of identical particles leads to an additional quantum gravity binding energy.

Our microscopic reality, though, is bound with charge and quantum action and, unless an object is very massive, gravity action is not much of a factor at all. In contrast to gravity action, quantum action is very dependent on the exact nature of matter amplitude and phase. Matter amplitude and phase are part of the quantum action that determines the nature of the bonds that hold an object’s matter together.

For example, an atom of hydrogen bonds much differently with another hydrogen atom as compared to a different element like oxygen. Oxygen bonds to two hydrogens and forms the water of our earth and comets. In contrast to charge action, the predictions of gravity action do not really need the details of atoms and bonds and amplitude and phase as long as we know a object's density and mass. However, at larger and smaller scale, the natures of quantum amplitude and phase do indeed impact gravity bonds.

Gravity and quantum actions represent somewhat inconsistent theorets or realities for science, but somehow we know that there is a relationship. General relativity is basically the gravity action that is what holds us to the earth and holds the sun in the galaxy and all galaxies to the universe and is very intuitive and deterministic. Each effect of gravity has a cause and that cause is local to that effect. In contrast to gravity action, quantum action depends on both matter amplitude and phase and not just mass. An extra phase coherence between objects links not only local object actions, but also correlates nonlocal object actions as well.

One of the more notable aspects of relativity is the statement of equivalence of energy and mass, E = mc2, with the proportionality of the speed of light squared and indeed quantum action has adopted that same principle as well. Just this simple matter-energy equivalence (MEE) explains much about both gravity and quantum action since all motion increases the inertial mass for each object proportional to its velocity squared, which is the kinetic energy of motion. Somehow an object gains and loses extremely small amounts of matter simply by changing its velocity.

Another notable result of relativity is the fact that the speed of light for an object does not depend on object velocity, which is a direct result of the equivalence of mass and energy and further results in a dilations of space and time associated with any motion as velocity and acceleration. When it comes to explaining the anomalous precession of Mercury about the sun or the bending of starlight by sol, the proportionality of energy and matter explains about one-half of such observations and the dilation of space and time explains the other half.

While the mass-energy equivalence principle is completely consistent with the formulation of a quantum gravity in matter time, the distortion of a continuous space by velocity and acceleration represents a little bit of a problem for any discrete quantum gravity. This is because dilation of continuous space is a result of gravity and so a particle that carries gravity force would therefore dilate space and alter the particle, which further dilates space, and so on. With discrete matter and time delay, spatial dilation is the result of action in discrete matter and time delay and not a result of gravity per se. While the distortion of continuous space and time with motion is definitely a part of our reality, this distortion is where there is a strain between gravity and quantum actions.

The question comes down to whether or not there is a continuous deterministic and predictable path for an object through space time. In general relativity, gravity distorts space and time and that is what results in a continuous deterministic path as a straight line in continuous 4-D space time. However, it is possible with mass-energy equivalence to have the same dilation of time and along with discrete changes in inertial matter, have the same path emerge for that object. In this reinterpretation, spatial dilation then emerges from the action of discrete matter and time delay and the result is what we call motion. What we imagine as action in space is really first of all an action or change of discrete matter with time delays and then only secondarily do continuous motions and dilations of continuous space emerge.

With discrete matter and time delay, a continuous spatial dilation emerges from the gravity action of an object in discrete matter time and spatial dilation therefore does not therefore cause action or motion in space. With this approach, quantum gravity becomes a straightforward result of action in matter time. While charge force is the exchange of photon dipoles between electrons and nuclei, gravity force is exchange of complementary photon pairs as mono-quadrupoles between the neutral matter and the boson matter of the universe.

The stress-energy tensor of GR then more properly emerges from a mono-quadrupole time and is not an a priori axiom. In quantum gravity, it is the mono-quadrupole time operator and its tensors that provide a proper time for each action from the two time dipoles of the rest and moving frames. For most common actions, the quantum time quadrupole is largely identical to proper time. However, for certain very massive and very small objects, there is a quantum exchange that enhances the gravitational bond. Gravity objects bind to each other by means of exchange of time quadrupoles.

Quantum action is largely about the behavior of coherent microscopic matter and is much less intuitive than gravity action at all scales. Quantum action depends on matter or mass just like gravity but quantum action also depends on something called phase and coherence and charge amplitude, properties of matter that have no relevance in general relativity. The interference effects of light are due to light’s phase and amplitude and so light shows polarization and partial reflection as a result. Yet these coherent effects occur for all objects of matter, not just for light. Neutral matter can show polarization and neutral matter can show partial reflection as well.

The basic equation of motion for quantum action is the Schrödinger equation for discrete matter,

which is a proportionality between the amplitude and phase for a matter wave of the future,


and the amplitude and phase of a matter wave of the present,


This is what is called a differential equation in time and is an action equation that describes how a matter wave changes over time, both in mass and phase. In this equation, mR represents the photon exchange energy that binds an electron to a proton to make hydrogen and is the mass equivalent of the Rydberg energy. There is an infinity of excited states for hydrogen whose energies emerge as spectral lines that converge to a finite ionization energy, which is called the Rydberg energy.

The integral form of the Schrödinger equation for discrete matter is

and shows that matter waves are also proportional to their integration over time, which is their action over time. That proportionality is the ratio of a binding energy, mR, and Planck’s constant and of course a phase factor, -i, which means that the action of an object is somehow orthogonal to its matter in time.

There is an infinity of excited states for hydrogen whose energies as discrete spectral lines converge to a finite value that is the hydrogen ionization or Rydberg energy. There are two solutions to each Schrödinger equation; an inner charge solution involving the charged electron along with an outer gravity solution involving discrete aether. The inner solution has photon dipole exchange that binds electrons to the nuclei of atoms and the outer solution involves pairs of complementary emitted photons that bind neutral atoms to the outer boson aether of the universe.

Matter waves scale with the square root of mass in matter time while the more typical wavefunctions of quantum mechanics are just dimensionless phase as probability amplitude. This means that the integral of a matter wave over all time is an action that results in the measurable property that we call mass. Matter waves are the moments of matter that make up all objects and sensation is the exchange of the matter waves of our senses with the matter waves of an object being sensed. In the parlance of quantum action, a matter wave or wavefunction collapses as a product of each exchange between us and an object and that collapse is the sensation that we imagine as the mass or some other property of an object.

We might see light from an object, feel the object, hear it, smell it, or even taste it. What we sense of an object alone is not the matter wave itself, but the product of the object matter wave with our own sensory matter waves. Sensation is an exchange of both amplitude and phase with objects in a bonding action that we imagine as reality. The discrete exchange of matter actually bonds us to objects with a quantum action that necessarily occurs in discrete quantum steps with discrete quantum states. This bonding action involves our whole body and not just our sensory organs.

A journey from point A to point B involves a series of steps or quantum jumps as an object exchanges discrete aether with other objects in order to get around the universe, successively bonding and conflicting with the matter waves of objects in order to move. Matter waves show action under the influence of operators and those actions result in discrete changes in object matter over time.

Time delay waves also show action, but now as a function of a quasi-continuum of matter. A journey from matter state A to matter state B involves a series of quantum jumps as an object exchanges time delays with other objects. While objects exists with discrete time delays, time is a quasi-continuum that depends on the very large number of quantum jumps of matter particles.

A continuum force like gravity in general relativity does not show the discrete states of quantum gravity but rather shows continuous motion from point A to point B. Continuous motion in space is a very natural and intuitive concept that is not how objects move in discrete matter and time delay. In fact, motion in continuous space results in serious conundrums like the Zeno’s paradox of an infinity of points and quantum action of whole particles resolves Zeno’s paradox but at the expense of a different interpretation for continuous macroscopic gravity action in the universe.

Gravity in matter time is a quantum action that binds atom pairs to the boson aether of the universe, which is discrete gaechron. The complementary photon pairs emitted from the charge actions of electron bonds for two atoms are the light that objects emit from charge and are the gravity force bonds between atoms and molecules as well. Emitted light represents the complementary outer state for the inner binding states of each atom and molecule and emitted light is the exchange that binds the matter waves of atoms and molecules with each other as the matter waves of the universe. Because we see light, we imagine emitted photons on trajectories through the void of space. In fact, emitted photons represent complementary changes in matter states that we call charge and gravity action.

There is a photon dipole exchange that binds an electron to a proton to form a hydrogen atom and such a mass defect is the Rydberg energy for hydrogen as well as binding atoms to each other with further energies and further shared electrons. That same charge force defect represents an equivalent photon pair exchange with the boson aether of the universe that is the gravity force that binds the hydrogen atom to the universe. The dephasing of discrete aether results in what we call gravity force and by scaling discrete aether exchange by the ratio of electron mass to discrete aeither, discrete aether decay is then what we call charge force as well. The light that we see from the stars at night represents a discrete aether exchange that binds the electrons and protons as well as atoms into stars and stars into the galaxy as well as the galaxy into the very fabric of the cosmos.

Although science expects a new particle called a graviton to be the exchange particle of gravity force, with the scaling of photon pairs in discrete matter, there is no new gravity particle. Rather, it is the universal dephasing of discrete boson aether that determines both gravity and charge forces and the photon is the basic exchange particle for both gravity and charge forces. Whereas photon exchange between the electron and proton represents charge force, photon pairs exchange between the electron and discrete aether represents gravity force. Thus, the ratio of the gaechron particle of discrete aether to the electron mass represents the 1e39 scaling between gravity and charge force cross sections.

Quantum action is often called odd although quantum action has been extraordinarily successful for virtually all predictions of action. However, quantum predictions are always probabilistic and uncertain and sometimes matter waves show correlated and coherent effects that entangle different locations in space. Even for a highly local matter wave action there is still some quantum uncertainty, which bothers many people. Since quantum phase can persist between two objects across the universe, the observation of one object phase seems to determine the other object phase instantaneously. So when that quantum uncertainty involves locations across the universe, people get even more uncomfortable and bothered.

And yet quantum action does not violate any causal principles, rather quantum action simply refines those causal principles to include matter wave phase, amplitude, and coherence as well as mass as the product of two matter waves. The phase or coherence of a matter wave is a property of an object that we do not directly experience and so it is less intuitive than just the mass of an object, which is the square of its amplitude and does not carry phase information.

There are many different ways of describing the issues of quantum nonlocality and entanglement, but basically it comes down to a set of fundamental differences between quantum and gravity notions of space and motion. Quantum motion involves both the wave amplitude and phase of an object, while gravity motion involves only the mass of an object, i.e. the product of two matter waves, and so gravity action for mainstream science does not involve or entangle matter wave phase and amplitudes between objects at all.

Objects follow certain action principles where action is the integral or sum total of an object’s matter over time. Any macroscopic object is the product of a very large number of actions over time and objects continually gain and lose discrete aether as a part of their existence in the universe. Our intuition typically represents action as some kind of spatial displacement of an object, but it is the discrete aether exchanges of an object in time that better represent quantum action instead of motion. Discrete matter exchanges occur as quantum action and are the action we see as motion for an object in space.

Einstein first recognized that both event and action times are equivalent to spatial displacements and his general relativity shows how gravity action dilates matter, space, and time in a continuous four dimensional spacetime. Objects that gain inertial mass from their potential matter we interpret as a relative motion in space and that mass gain affects the space and action time between objects as well.

There are, however, different ways to interpret the dilation of matter, space, and time, with quantum gravity and therefore with a pure quantum action. Objects are in constant discrete aether exchange with other objects and it is from the gained inertial mass from other objects that object motion in space emerges. However, in general relativity the trajectory of an object follows a determinate geodesic path determined by gravity. If rather the distortion of space is a result of the gravity actions of that object, the same principles apply but now with a complementary quantum action for both gravity and charge.

An object like a rocket ship gains velocity and momentum by ejecting matter with the mass impulse of some kind of burning fuel and the action of the burning fuel propels the rocket in the opposite direction by its equivalent momentum. However, the relative motions of both ship and fuel actually are a result of much smaller gains in inertial masses, discrete aether, as equivalent kinetic energy by the matter-energy equivalence principle.

In other words, even while we imagine that the total rest mass of rocket and fuel does not change due to exchange of equivalent and opposite momentum, in fact, it is the the very small changes in the inertial masses of both rocket and ejected fuel that results in their respective motions. In a strict sense, then, what causes motion in space is the increase in inertial masses of two objects with equal and opposite momentum by exchange of discrete aether. Both objects increase in mass proportionately with their velocities squared relative to a rest frame and this matter increase comes from the potential matter as energy that was embedded into the chemical and gravity and nuclear bonds of the fuel.

The quantum action of discrete matter and time delay, which along with action, are the three axioms that close our universe. An action equation predicts the future of an object as discrete exchanges of matter with other objects over time. Quantum gravity predicts a large number of possible futures for macroscopic objects, but quantum action for macroscopic objects involves much greater scale than the local actions of gravity.

While there are a large number of possible futures for an object undergoing quantum action, including nonlocal futures, under gravity action of mainstream science, there is only one possible future for an object. This difference of action principles goes for the same object and the same reality and leads to interminable scientific and philosophical discourse about which action actually better describes an object’s possible future. Gravity and quantum actions are largely consistent with each other in common experience, but the two actions can represent irreconcilable futures for certain very large or very small objects. For example, until science reconciles gravity with quantum action, there is simply no way to definitively address the mystery of quantum gravity nonlocality.

The single future of gravity action in GR is consistent with a reality that is deterministic and local. Local effects always have local causes and this is the reality that we normally experience with gravity. Gravity is a continuous and infinitesimal force with a pesky microscopic singularity centered on each particle of matter and so there is no coherence for an object between two different locations in space. Since gravity action is the basis of our intuition for macroscopic objects in everyday life, we therefore have a very strong expectation that local actions only correlate to other local effects. We know that two ballistic particles from a source can arrive simultaneously at very different locations along separate paths A and B. However, a single matter wave can propagate along both paths A and B and yet only appear as a single particle at A or B. Note the appearance at A is coherent and correlated with no appearance at B, but neither causes one nor the other to occur.

Our intuition and experience, after all, are both largely based on an intuition of gravity action and so we greatly favor gravity action and mass as bases for predictions. Gravity action is usually very predictable since after all, what goes up, must come down. For gravity force, there is no allowance for the coherence of a single matter wave across the time delay of the universe.

Phase coherence can make it seem like the appearance of an object in one place causes its absence in another place, or that the absence of an object in another place causes the object appearance in the one place. Coherence has many effects, but quantum action does not violate any causal principle. Quantum action simply includes phase along with amplitude and a source and so better represents the actions of the entire universe, including actions at very small and very large scales.

A quantum universe consists of objects simultaneously located everywhere in the universe as amplitudes of matter waves. What provides us with the sensation of an object in one place and on one path is the time and phase that separates that object from other objects. It is an object’s incoherence with all of its other possibilities as a matter wave that we sense as a local object in time and space. While some of the many possible futures of an object from quantum action are nonlocal, the issues with quantum nonlocality and entanglement are fundamentally related to the many very different possible futures or phases for quantum action.

Quantum action is perfectly causal, but unfortunately quantum action is just sometimes not very intuitive since quantum can involve phase and coherence among objects in different places. We find it hard to accept how a perfectly real and observable ballistic object could ever be a matter wave that has both an amplitude and phase and magically disappears from one place due to destructive interference and then equally magically reappears in a completely different place due to constructive interference of those same amplitudes.

Worse yet, objects as matter waves can actually exist as a possibility in more than one Cartesian location until it finally interacts with another object at one place or the other, i.e., the matter wave collapses or dephases. And yet our quantum reality shows that matter has both amplitude and phase and therefore matter will show the many nonintuitive effects of coherency and interference.

It is particularly confusing when explanations of quantum action give macroscopic objects like people and cats the coherent attributes of microscopic matter. Coherent matter behaves so differently from incoherent matter that comparisons between coherent and incoherent macroscopic matter can result in very confusing allegories. Although it is possible for macroscopic matter to show coherence, the dephasing times for any macroscopic object are typically very short unless the objects are very massive neutron stars or black holes.

Until science unites charge and gravity into a common quantum action for all objects, there will continue to be confusion and strong differences of opinion about the nature of quantum action versus gravity action. For example, given similar charge and gravity forces for a coherent object, quantum action shows interference effects due to superposition but gravity only predicts ballistic collisions between objects. We have an intuition and life experience with macroscopic matter and gravity action that is very difficult to reconcile with the reality of microscopic matter and quantum action.

Light is a rather unusual form of matter and a photon of light on a trajectory in space is also the exchange particle that binds charged particles together. An exchange of a photon dipole between an electron and proton represents the dipolar charge force that stabilizes a hydrogen atom dipole, which is the basis of quantum electrodynamics and is well accepted by science.

That emitted photon pair is then the binding force for gravity, but this is not a common understanding. For one thing, charge is a dipole force while gravity is a mono-quadrupole force and so it is not clear how a dipolar photon with spin = 1 and plus/minus amplitudes can result in mono-quadrupole gravity with spin = {2, 0, -2} and quadrupolar amplitudes. The radiative cooling of hydrogen at the CMB created photon pairs that are a quadrupole attractive force called gravity. Since there is a pair of photons for every two neutral atoms to the universe, it is that mono-quadrupole pair that is responsible for gravity force.

In order for a neutral atom to form from charged electrons and protons, the neutral atom must emit or otherwise radiate its dipole charge binding energy as a complementary photon. That emitted photon is equal to the atom’s binding energy, which is the Rydberg energy for hydrogen, for example. There actually can be and are many photon emissions and absorptions of various energies and so this description just simplifies that complexity into one single event pair.

Each pair of neutral atoms emits a pair of photons at creation and those photon matter waves have complementary spin and polarization. While the dipole force between these particles and the photons progressively cancels out over time, the mono/quadrupole force persists as a tensor. Thus gravity force behaves as the quadrupole tensor of a coherent photon pair with spin = 0 and is a single particle with physical dimensions that literally define the age of the universe.

There is just one future for gravity action in general relativity and that one future is still consistent with our deterministic intuition. General relativity dilates or distorts continuous matter, space, and time with gravity action and there are many strange results of general relativity having to do with time dilation, simultaneity, and frames of reference. But while distant objects far away from a gravity action do not affect a local gravity action very much, the ratio of hydrogen’s time dipole to the time dipole of the universe is the scaling between gravity and charge forces.

In contrast to the determinism of gravity action in GR, there are actually a large number of possible futures for the same action as a quantum time quadrupole. The Rydberg photon emitted from hydrogen at creation is the exchange with the universe that binds each hydrogen atom to the boson matter of the universe. The time delay of that bond is coherent with that of the electron around the proton. The photon exchange between the universe and each pair of such atoms binds each atom to the universe matter and therefore to each other as well. It is then the shrinkage of the universe about those atom’s center of mass that represents what we interpret as the binding force of gravity between these two hydrogens.

Therefore the binding energy for hydrogen is the sum of the binding energy of the electron and proton along with a second term that is the binding energy of the atom with the discrete aether of the universe. In a strict sense, the binding matter of the electron and proton of an atom scales to the binding matter of that atom to the universe. Since they are equal and opposite in sign, their sum is zero and that result is an example of the Taylor-DeWitt equation. Even though their energies are equal and opposite, charge and gravity matter waves are quite different.

Whatever future actions occur for atoms in their many possible futures, their center’s of action and the gravity action that goes along with these centers persists. As matter evolves into heavier elements in star fusion engines, there are additional light and energy exchanges between those heavier elements and the universe and this additional action matter means that matter bonds in more complex ways to the universe just as matter bonds in more complex ways with different elements. The nature of gravity force actually increases over time just as the universe of matter shrinks or dephases and it is the overall shrinkage of the universe that is the origin of all force.

Quantum mechanics represents matter as the two dimensions of amplitude and phase. Thus a particle on a trajectory in space represents the matter of an object as a wave in a spectrum of matter waves across all space and time. A classic example of the wave nature of light is a series of strong and weak intensities, fringes, that is an interference pattern. An equally classic example of the particle nature of light as photons is the photoelectric effect where a photon of some minimum energy results in ejection of an electron from a metal surface.

The wave nature of light results in a pattern of light and dark fringes due to a coherent action from a single source between two or more possible paths for a source’s photons. This coherence can be the result of any number of means but the typical experiment is with two slits and the resultant diffraction of a light source.

However, each peak of intensity of the fringe pattern comprises a large number of measurable single photon events from the source. We want very badly that each of those photons journeyed ballistically along straight line paths from the source to the pattern and are disappointed to learn that there is not a single ballistic path for any single photon. Rather, each photon journeys as a matter wave with a wavelike trajectory on multiple paths to the interference pattern.

We are further disappointed to learn that this fringe pattern could persist over the dimensions of the universe. That is, the photon that we detect right here right now that come to us from a source may have also possibly been on a different path, somewhere very far away connecting some other object to the same source at the same time distance away. Since the photon wave journeyed across the universe somehow on its way to us right here we presume that its journey was ballistic as a particle.

When we record the photon right here, right now, we know for certain that the photon was here now and therefore not ever anywhere else. But the moment before we measured the photon here now, there had been a possibility that that same photon as a wave would have occurred somewhere else in the universe and therefore not here. Our intuition, though, tells us that photons that emanate from a source do so in a continuous ballistic manner and those photons are on continuous ballistic paths. The quantum truth is that it is photon matter waves that emanate from a source, and a photon matter wave is not yet a ballistic photon localized in space.

This seems like a funny result since when we see a photon, we know that the photon came from the image of a source that we imagine behind the photon and so we imagine a ballistic Cartesian journey in a more or less straight line from the source to our eye. If the source is incoherent, we imagine that it shines equivalently in all directions, but still imagine each light wave as a ballistic photon particle.

This is how we imagine objects in our Cartesian minds and a quantum action as a wave goes against the deterministic intuition of our ballistic gravity action. This does not mean that the photon did not exist before its wave dephased from the source, rather it means that the photon existed as a matter wave with both amplitude and phase and not as a ballistic particle.

What gives? Why can an object appear to be in more than one place as a matter wave prior to its interaction with another object at a different location? And what about the recoil momentum of the source? The ballistic action of a photon leaving a source means a recoil of equal and opposite momentum of the source since that is our experience with the ballistics of firing a bullet from a gun. A gun immediately recoils with the bullet momentum and does not wait until the bullet hits a target. In other words, the bullet does not remain coherent with the gun from which it discharged for very long and so the ballistic path of the bullet is a single path from the source.

However, a bullet is really not an apt analogy for a photon as a matter wave.

A different perspective provides different information about an object and while that information from a different perspective is in principle knowable, we cannot ever know about an object from every possible perspective. We can never observe all of the different perspectives of an object, but still that lack of knowledge does not represent anything that is fundamentally unknowable.

The path of a photon through space, however, can represent information that is fundamentally unknowable. A matter wave is necessarily a superposition of states and so we can only know the result from say two possibilities, A and B, by seeing the photon along path A. However, we can only then conclude that the photon’s amplitude wave included path A and we cannot know that the photon was ballistic on path A. The photon may or may not have existed as a matter wave superposition on A and B even though we can still use the photon location at A or B to know the direction of the source.

A single photon event does not tell us very much about a source and we typically depend on many more than thousands of photons to locate a source image with any precision.

A photon and its source can remain coherent with each other and that coherency will persist until some kind of dephasing action occurs with another object. An action with another object can dephase either the photon or the source and if that happens, the photon becomes ballistic. A subsequent action between an object and the photon, such as reflection, polarization, diffraction, refraction, etc., in effect creates a new source and a new phase relationship with the photon.

Actually we readily accept some degree of time and spatial uncertainty for events as long as the uncertainites are local to an object or action. But it really distresses our causal nature when there are large spatial gaps between an object’s possibilities, i.e., when the fringe patterns of quantum interference are really large. It simply is not possible to assign ballistic trajectories to photons with anything more than a probability.

We as quantum beings are in a quantum universe and only have relational experiences with objects by exchange of matter. Yet we imagine from those limited relations a ballistic Cartesian existence outside of our quantum mind with well-defined objects that we recognize from past experience. While a Cartesian object has a single ballistic trajectory in space and time, there are many possible futures for a relational object with which we are in direct contact and so we exchange our own matter waves with that of an object. Quantum events and actions reveal that there is a relational dimension in our quantum existence, even though we normally only imagine a Cartesian world of objects from our relational experiences with those objects.

It is from our relational experience with an object that we project its Cartesian or ballistic reality and so that is the dilemma of existence. It is only possible for us to experience an object through our relations with an object’s matter waves, but we then imagine a ballistic Cartesian existence in our mind that represents that object on a trajectory in the space outside of our mind.

We can prepare a coherent state that represents a particle’s matter wave amplitude at two places across the universe from each other with different phases. However, once the particle interacts with an object in one place or the other, that action can dephase or collapse that matter wave and therefore localize the matter wave to a particle in that one place.

The background matter of the universe, whatever you want to call it, is mostly what defines the universe and there is necessarily a coherence in time for any matter action. The phase of an action of a particle defines the location and direction of the particle journey and so a particle reality occurs in just one location. A particle amplitude, though, goes into and out of existence as its matter wave oscillates in time, in principle for the whole time of the universe. And a particle as a matter wave at a given moment also varies in the matter spectrum of the universe, in principle involving all of the matter in the universe.

One way to unite gravity and charge force is by the principles of discrete matter and time delay. In discrete matter time, light is the exchange particle that is responsible for both charge and gravity forces. Light binds charges together into an atom with a single photon and light also binds atoms to the universe with photon pairs as an exchange that binds atoms to each other with gravity.

In much of our experience, particles are well localized and that means particles are dephased and incoherent and ballistic in both the time and matter of the universe. In quantum parlance, this is what we know as our Cartesian reality, where particles and objects all seem to behave ballistically and independently. If a particle is on a trajectory through space, that trajectory represents a continuum of displacements along that trajectory.

However, a particle as a coherent matter wave manifests itself with additional possible futures in both proper and action times of the universe. While charge force is a local exchange on the dimensions of an atom, gravity force is the stabilization of that atom with a photon exchange that occurs on the dimensions of the universe. A coherent charge state binds each atom with a coherent gravity state due to an emitted photon wave, a wave that has 2π symmetry. Gravity force, though, is a result of two complementary photon waves, which are the exchanges of photons on the much larger time and matter dimensions of the universe and therefore have a 4π symmetry.

In effect, gravity force is therefore coherent with charge force and the action of light scales both gravity and charge forces by the matter and time dimensions of the universe. The photon, electron, and proton of each atom are in an action that binds the atom together while a complementary emitted photon wave exchanges with discrete aether and binds atoms to each other through the universe of matter.

Coherent gravitational states are therefore possible, but only with very simple gravitational matter. The boson accretion that we call a black hole, for example, is an example of highly coherent gravitational matter.

In principle, a gravity beamsplitter as shown in the figure at right prepares small objects like atoms or molecules into a superposition of coherent gravity states. Two identical massive bodies like the earth and moon orbit each other around a center of mass as in the figure. Two much smaller and identical objects, A and B, are in orbits that intersect at a gravitational Lagrange point between the earth and moon.

It appears that any gravitational Lagrange point can result in generating coherent gravity matter states for small objects on different orbits. Moreover, two stars that are equidistant from a third star result in a similar degeneracy that results in a coherent matter wave resonance that affects all three stars. Such matter waves perturb the underlying discrete boson aether of the universe and so matter waves affect both charge and gravity actions in complementary ways.

Coherent matter states in the universe have the same proper times relative to a source event, even though they are widely separated in action time. While a matter wave can remain coherent with a source for a very long time, that does not mean that a particle’s existence is uncertain; it does mean that a particle’s state or future is uncertain.

There is a conflict between the ballistic Cartesian existence for an object that we typically project with our mind and the relational existence that actually binds us to the matter waves of objects with matter exchange. These two dimensions of existence represent the dual aspects of our quantum reality as well as the duality of Descartes’ and other philosophies. In our ballistic Cartesian experience, existence has one meaning; an object that exists does so right here and right now as part of a proper existence.

In our relational experience, the matter waves we exchange with objects only represent possible futures. When we exchange discrete aether waves, we in essence share or exchange both matter and phase with objects in the wavelike realm of quantum exchange, and existence of quantum matter waves means something more than Cartesian ballistic existence. The relational aether wave exchange that binds us to an object means that the object becomes a part of us and we become a part of the object, even though we only sense some small fraction of that matter wave exchange.

When we exchange matter waves with an object, we call that experience, and there is always a period of both matter exchange as well as phase coherence between two objects. Any residual coherence between us and the object can result in a further relational component beyond a mass change and is a quantum entanglement that is beyond the typical ballistic Cartesian experience of action and reaction that we imagine. Note that Cartesian and relational dimensions of experience are really both part of a dual quantum reality.

We can and do imagine and know that there are other possible futures for any event that we experience. In particular, an action can dephase a photon from its source in which case the photon becomes ballistic. But as long as a photon remains coherent with its source, a matter wave binds not only the photon to the source, but to other objects as well at the same time distance from the source.

The photon could have a single ballistic future or it could have the many possible matter wave futures that entangle it with other objects. It is the other possible nonlocal and unknowable futures that somehow bother our causal ballistic natures. We want to place each object that we experience on a single ballistic Cartesian trajectory that is continuous from an origin to a destiny. Our intuition does not have much patience for the seemingly endless waves of quantum coherency that entangle local aether waves with other aether waves on other trajectories in the universe.

A photon that remains coherent with the action of its source has different possible futures from a photon that has dephased from its source. A photon that has dephased from its source has a single ballistic future much like any macroscopic object. All macroscopic objects, though, continually emit and absorb light and particles with incoherent phases and so a macroscopic objects’ decoherence times can be quite short. Simple quantum objects like photons, though, can retain coherence with their sources across the universe.

We are very comfortable with the causal notion of directional coherence and expect that a single point of an object emits photons in a single direction. When we see a photon from such a point on an object, we know the direction from which it came and our quantum logic does not change that truth. Where we have trouble is in imagining a single photon event that also has a transverse phase coherence as a matter wave that is perpendicular to the photon direction from a source. Transverse phase coherence means that a photon amplitude travels as a coherent wave in different possible directions at the same time even though the photon will only be absorbed by another matter wave in one particular location or phase.

There are actually two dimensions to time and our two dimensional time along with two dimensional matter represents a total of four dimensions in matter time. Given a π/2 or perpendicular phase relationship between matter and time, these four matter time dimensions reduce to three; matter, time, and phase. Time’s two dimensions include a proper time and an action time and matter’s two dimensions likewise include proper matter and action matter.

Our proper time is relative to the CMB in our 371 km/s velocity inertial frame. Action time is that associated with velocities of common experience, perhaps all of several meters per second and so action time represents displacements that are orders of magnitude less than the displacement of proper time.

Proper matter describes our galaxy as it moves at 550 km/s with respect to the CMB and rotates at 200 km/s, while our sun moves at 220 km/s, about 20 km/s faster than the galaxy rotates. These actions all make up the proper matter that results from our 371 km/s proper motion with respect to the CMB while our action matter is what occurs at lower scale.

Earth rotates about the sun at 30 km/s and spins about its axis at 0.47 km/s while we travel down the freeway at 0.027 km/s and walk around at about 0.001 km/s. Matter is likewise two dimensional with one dimension being the proper matter of our comoving frame of reference in the universe. The second matter dimension is the action matter of common experience that we call kinetic and potential energies.

Each atom of the universe forms as bound charges in a quantum exchange of light and other bosons that complements a gravitational quantum exchange orbit of that atom with the gaechron matter of the universe. We like to imagine a ballistic orbit for gaechron around an atom through space just as we like to imagine an electron in a ballistic orbit around a proton. But the atom-gaechron orbit is through time and quantum phase and not through space just as the electron orbit is through time and quantum phase as well.

While continuous space and motion are very useful ways to imagine the universe, continuous space and motion do not always represent either electron-proton states or atom-aether states very well. In addition to the time of this atom-aether orbit, there is a quantum phase angle between time and matter and for typical action, and it is from matter and time and from that phase angle that we project what we call space.

For any pair of atom-universe bonds, the shrinkage of the universe aether is the gravity force by which atoms appear to attract each other. In fact, the shrinkage of the universe is responsible for both charge and gravity force, just at very different scale. Eventually, these gravitational accretions of fermionic matter evolve from hydrogen into other elements in stars and that nucleosynthesis releases more action matter. A portion of the total energy and luminosity or action matter of each galaxy derives from nucleosynthesis and that action matter eventually ends up as large boson accretions known as black holes.

The formation of protons and electrons from the aether of the early universe results in a light that is the integrated CMB luminosity at 2.7 K, very much colder than the 70-80 F that people prefer. Once stars begin to fuse hydrogen into other elements, there is enough action matter to reionize hydrogen as well as to begin to fuse matter into excited states of the universe. And this reionization is an additional source of energy that then contributes to an overall universe energy balance.

Suppose you see an object along path A, if the object was at some incremental displacement as A – ds the previous moment, then the object was ballistic and its action was local. There are objects that exist in a superposition of quantum states, {A, B, C, …} and such an object can distribute around the universe according to some prior coherent quantum action. Note that a ballistic object actually also follows that same quantum logic, but a ballistic object has dephased and no longer coherent with its source.

The action of a beamsplitter creates coherency between the two paths A and B and some kind of magic occurs at the beamsplitter that makes 50% of photons disappear by destructive interference at both A and B. The ballistic Cartesian interpretation is that the beamsplitter reflects 50% of the photons as particles to A and transmits 50% to B and although this answer is technically wrong, it is good enough for many applications. If all you need is a one-way mirror or a grayed window or sunglasses to block sunlight, you really do not need to know much about single photon coherence. Thus our ballistic Cartesian reality does work fairly well for most predictions of action, even for those quantum actions with quantum devices like sunglasses.

We often lack knowledge about the appearance of an object even though that object exists as a single state and its appearance is in principle knowable. We can also lack knowledge about the state of an object, but if the object does exist in a single state, that single state is in principle knowable as well and not subject to quantum entanglement. When an object or image is a superposition of two coherent amplitudes, though, a single state is not yet realized and therefore not even knowable in principle. The object or image will not appear until we or other objects dephase the amplitudes from each other and a single state occurs.

Using logic to test quantumology tries to get a more graphic description of nonlocality. Remember, though, that quantum logic is already quite rigorous since it is based on math. It is rather the word descriptions of quantum logic that somehow fail to convince our common ballistic intuition of the principle of coherency. Our language is full of loopholes and conundrums and logic itself is often thwarted by the words that confuse meaning.

You say A is B or A is not B, but of course, we have a lot of examples of words that provide ambiguous meaning even to simple logic statements. Nothing is true, but if that is correct, it means that nothing is not true as well. The universe is finite, and if that is true, it would mean that the universe is not finite as well. Everything is finite and if that is true, nothing is finite since nothing is a part of everything. If there is anything that is really true, it is that nothing is really true. But if nothing is true, then anything is not true as well.

Is matter real? Is time real? Is action real? What is matter and why is matter the way that it is? What is time and why is time the way that it is? What is action and why is action the way that it is? Why does the world exist?

Thinking is being, but thinking is in our mind and being is not in our mind, and if that is all true, thinking is not being.

One very significant issue with quantum versus gravity actions is in the definition of consciousness. Unless there is a way to express conscious choice in the context of quantum action, there will always be those who believe that conscious choice is an illusion of the chaos of a ballistic determinism. Usually the reasoning goes that all action in the world is actually deterministic, but the world it is also just really, really very complicated and so we can never hope to know all of that complexity and chaos.

In a world of chaotic determinism, while it seems like we have free choice, this is just an illusion and the truth is that we just have more choices that we can ever possibly know about. However, philosophers who take this position then need to stipulate that there is still a need for personal responsibility and morality. In a deterministic universe, it is not clear that anyone is really responsible for their actions. After all, action and behavior are simply the some total of their genes and experiences up until that point.

All choice comes down to a binary decision between action and inaction at some threshold of a neural action potential and since quantum probability determines the neural action potential as it does all action of the universe, quantum probability also governs choice. Circumstances at the time of a choice predetermine most choices that we make and so in that sense, even binary decisions are not random. Each set of circumstances determines the threshold of action, but at the threshold of each action/inaction there is a distribution of quantum possibilities and a superposition of action and inaction states. In particular, there are a number of even odds choices that we make that may still substantially change the path of our lives. Every action, then, is a quantum action and involves some superposition of states for some period after the action.

An aware matter algorithm is part of our consciousness is therefore an important part of what makes us us. While most actions have fairly predictable results, there are no perfectly predictable results of action, especially for the results of human actions. Given the free choice that is quantum action, we do have a responsibility for choosing moral action since we freely choose our path in life as part of our purpose.

What we know of as right and wrong and just and unjust is part of the purpose with which we journey in life from our origin to a destiny. We are not programmed to be good or evil, but we are free to choose our destiny despite any experience of our past.

Some of what happened in the past involved objects that persisted as amplitudes and never collapsed into intensities. What this means is not that these objects do not exist as one phase, rather it means that the objects persist with more than one possibility as matter amplitudes that still project into more than one spatial location in the present moment.

Continuous space and motion are really just the results of discrete matter and action and so space exists only as a result of discrete matter, time delay, and the action of matter exchange. What this means is that while space is a convenient and necessary way to imagine discrete matter and action, the notions of continuous space and motion are limited. Although we find it useful to remember space as an object of the past that contains objects of action, the universe exists as an object of matter and its matter spectrum is what actually exists. While we get confused by objects that appear to simultaneously exist in different places in space, the state of the universe matter spectrum at any past time is knowable.